Simulation of Mass Flow Rate of Particles Discharged from Hopper by Particle Element Method
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Flow behavior of particles discharged from an orifice of a hopper is simulated three dimensionally by the Particle Element Method, PEM (Discrete Element Method, DEM), and the relation between the mass flow rate (<I>W</I>) and the orifice diameter (<I>D</I>) is discussed in conjunction with the cyclic formation-collapse phenomena of the arch formed over the orifice. The simulated relation is consistent with the empirical one, expressed as <I>W</I> ∝ <I>D<SUP>n</SUP></I> (<I>n</I> = 2.5–3.0). <I>W</I> is expressed as functions of three parameters, which are the cross sectional area of the orifice (<I>A</I>), the flow velocity (<I>v</I>), and the volume fraction of flowing particles at the orifice (<I>γ</I>). <I>A</I> is the parameter with most effection <I>W</I>, because it is proportional to <I>D</I><SUP>2</SUP>. In addition, <I>v</I> influences <I>W</I> at one-quater of <I>A</I>'s contribution, while <I>γ</I>'s contribution is only one-quater of <I>A</I>'s one or less, depending on the frictional coefficient of particle. The frictional coefficient of the particle is an important factor for controlling the mass flow rate of particles.
- JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN 31(6), pp.936-940, 1998-12-01
The Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan