神奈川県における都市用水事業・下水道事業の広域化と流域変更 Expansion of Municipal Water and Sewerage Systems and Interbasin Water Transfer in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

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都市用水供給のために,大規模な流域変更が大都市周辺の河川で行われている.神奈川県の河川は,横浜市・川崎市・横須賀市などの都市に水を輸送するための導水路によって結ばれ,相模川・酒匂川の水のかなりの部分が,本来排出されるべき相模湾ではなく東京湾へと排出されている.本研究では,都市用水事業と下水道事業により引き起こされた流域変更について考察するために,都市用水事業と下水道事業の展開と,都市用水として流域変更された水量を明らかにすることを目的とする.<br> 都市用水の供給のために相模川水系と酒匂川水系から流域変更された水量を, 1960年度から1990年度までの期間についてまとめ,その結果を地図化した.<br> 相模川流:域から東京湾側へと流域変更された水量は,近年増加し続けている.その水量は1960年度では2億m<sup>3</sup>, 1990年度では5億6800万m<sup>3</sup>となっている.また,下水道普及率や有収率の向上に伴い,下水処理されて東京湾へと排出される水量も増加している.その水量は1960年度では6800万m<sup>3</sup>, 1990年度では4億9600万m<sup>3</sup>となっている.<br> 流域変更が地域の水環境に与える影響としては,都市域では水収支の変化と汚濁負荷量の増大があげられ,水源流域においては流量の減少などが指摘できる.

Due to recent urban expansion, a trend has developed wherein cities are seeking sources of municipal water beyond the divide of the river basin. Such diversions of river flows impact aquatic environments in several ways. When considering current and future problems with water resources and water pollution, it is extremely important to clarify the influence of river diversions for municipal water supply on the aquatic environment. Such interbasin water transfers for municipal supply are notably seen in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Kanagawa prefecture, Aichi prefecture, and Kagawa prefecture; this paper focuses on the historical development of water resources in Kanagawa prefecture (Fig. 1). Large-scale water diversions have been made using aqueducts to transport water from rivers in Kanagawa prefecture to Yokohama, Kawasaki, Yokosuka, and other cities near Tokyo, resulting in increased discharges into Tokyo Bay and decreased discharges into Sagami Bay.<br> The purpose of this paper is to elucidate these changes in the amounts of water diverted for city use and shed light on the restoration of municipal water and sewerage systems. The total volume of water diverted from the Sagami and Sakawa Rivers for municipal use from fiscal year (FY) 1960 to FY 1990 has been calculated. The data were processed using GIS, and the results are shown in Figs. 2-7.<br> 1) The volume of total intake water has been increasing annually since FY 1960. This amount was 480 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1960, and increased to 1, 750 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1990 (Fig. 2).<br> 2) The total volume of treated wastewater was 120 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1960, and increased to 950 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1990 (Fig. 3).<br> 3) The total volume of water intake from the Sagami River basin was 360 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1960, increasing to 1, 055 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1990 (Fig. 4).<br> 4) The total volume of treated wastewater, which was originally intake from the Sagami River basin, was 70 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1960, increasing to 700 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1990 (Fig. 5).<br> 5) The total volume of water intake from the Sakawa River basin was 180 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1960, increasing to 280 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1990 (Fig. 6).<br> 6) The total volume of treated wastewater, which was originally intake from the Sakawa River basin was 50 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1960, increasing to 160 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1990 (Fig. 7).<br> 7) The volume of water diverted from the Sagami River basin to Tokyo Bay basin has been increasing in recent years. The volume of water used was 200 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1960, rising to 568 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1990. With the increase in new and improvement of existing sewer connections, the discharge of treated wastewater into Tokyo Bay has also increased. The volume of treated water was 68 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1960, increasing to 496 million m<sup>3</sup> in FY 1990 (Fig. 9).<br> It is presumed that the environment of the lower reaches of the Sagami River has been influenced by decreasing discharges due to these diversions.

収録刊行物

  • 地理学評論. Ser. A  

    地理学評論. Ser. A 70(8), 475-490, 1997-08 

    The Association of Japanese Geographers

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10002220874
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN1016484X
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    00167444
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    4264366
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-571
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  CJP引用  NDL  J-STAGE 
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