日本における都心地域の空間形状の特性と動向 Characteristics and Trends of Spatial Forms of City Centers in Japan
本稿では日本中の都市から従業者密度によって都心を抽出し,空間形状の特徴を数値化した指標を用いて,衛星都市や県庁所在地のような都市のタイプごとにどのような傾向を持っか,また日本の諸都市の都心がどのように空間形状の特徴によって分類できるかを分析した.事業所統計調査の4次メッシュ集計データを用い,全国から135の領域を抽出して,四つのオリジナルな指標によって空間形状や中心地点への集中程度を測った.<br> その結果,商業とオフィスの従業者比が都心の性格を表し,オフィスの従業者比が高いほど中心性が高いことを示した.三大都市圏では大都市の都心はオフィス機能に特化し,衛星都市は商業機能に特化しているとともに空間形状がコンパクトであるという特徴を持つ.また県庁都市の都心は一般地方都市と比べてオフィスの従業者比が高く,従業者密度が地理的に均質である.また, 1980年から1990年の10年間の比較分析から地方都市の郊外化の進行を確認した.
It is necessary to select the exact area of city center to analyze its characteristics. This paper pro-poses the "agglomeration district of city center-type" (AD) as an absolute reference for the city center based on employee density. As this index differs from relative references like the central business district which are used traditionally, it permits comparative analysis between cities throughout Japan. This index also makes it possible to compare commercial and office specialization in city centers. In the definition of this index, the number of employees in the city center corresponds to over 1, 250 per 500-m grid with a total of more than 10, 000. In this paper, 135 areas throughout Japan are selected for analysis, using the 500-m grid data of the Establishment Census of Japan for an area corresponding to the index.<br> In order to examine differences in the characteristics of the ADs, the following four indices were devised. First, "the ratio of commercial employees" illustrates the centricity of cities. Second, "the center agglomeration index" expresses the degree of centralization in terms of the core of employees in the AD. Third, "the ratio of agglomeration district distortion" quantifies the degree of distortion of the spatial form in the AD. Finally, "the separation ratio of office and commercial centers" quantifies the relative degree of separation of office and commercial centers. Using these indices, an attempt is made to classify the ADs based on locations and characteristics to analyze their features comparatively. The ADs in the metropolitan area can be divided into the core city type and the satellite city type, and the ADs in the local city area can also be divided into the prefectural city type and the general city type.<br> As a result, it was found that the ratio of commercial employees can express the characteristics of city centers, and that the centricity is higher with a lower ratio of commercial employees (a higher ratio of office employees). In the three metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya, the city centers are specialized in office functions, and those of satellite cities are specialized in commercial functions and are compact in geographic form. Differences in characteristics are detected between city centers in prefectural and general local cities. The ratio of office employees in the former is higher, the average employee density is higher, and the employee density is more geographically even. An attempt was also made to confirm the presence of groups of city centers with similar features using cluster analysis. From comparative time series analysis of 10-year data from 1981 to 1991, the progress of suburbanization in local cities was confirmed.
- 地理学評論. Ser. A
地理学評論. Ser. A 70(10), 625-641, 1997-10
The Association of Japanese Geographers