幕末期から第2次大戦に至るわが国都市システムの発展過程 The Modernizing Process of Urban Functions and Urban Systems from the End of Edo Period to the Period before World War II
This paper is focused on the modernizing process of urban functions in Japanese cities which should remarkably transformed since the end of feudal age ; the transformation of dominant urban functions from parasitic character through central function to management function in main cities of nonmetropolitan areas.<BR>First, examining the comparative descriptions between the end of Edo Period and the early Meiji Era mentioned in 'the Annual Report of Commercial Situation (<I>Shokyo Nenpo</I>)' published in 1877 and 1878, we can often reveal the properties of urban functions and urban systems in the comparative descriptions with the end of Edo Period. According to such an analysis the castle towns forming the main element of Japanese urban system in feudal age can be recognized as a kind of parasitic cities, because the merchants of castle towns mainly supplied the necessary goods to <I>samurais</I> inhabited in their own towns. While foods and fuels were transported into castle towns from the surrounding rural areas, the merchants of castle towns could not supply many goods with the same intensity to inhabitants of the rural areas. Besides the circulation of commodities controlled within the territory of clans, Edo (the old name of Tokyo), Osaka and Kyoto functioned as the triple centers within the whole country through oversea transportation of goods. Accordingly, the hierarchical structure of two strata can be recognized in the urban system in those days : national urban system due to the triple centers and the regional and local urban systems in clan territories. The latter usually consisted of smaller areas with castle towns as a center than in the present prefectural areas.<BR>Since the Meiji Restauration in 1868 the free economic competition has become active among cities or towns. As the merchants of castle towns lost their privileges, most of castle towns declined, at least temporally. Although there are no adequate materials to analyze central place functions, it can be estimated that they played an especially important role as urban functions in the early Meiji Era except for traffic functions because manufacturing industry has still not developed. Central place functions such as administration, education, health service, etc. were gradually established in larger centers, especially in prefectural capitals. Japanese industrial revolution occurred with singular form about from 1887 to 1907. Usually, larger centers grew and smaller ones declined, although a few new industrial towns appeared.<BR>Next, the author analyzed the branch offices of companies registered in Tokyo and Hiroshima Prefectures in 'the Main Staff List of Most Companies in Japan (<I>Nihon Zenkoku Shohaisha Yakuinroku</I>) in 1908 and 1935 in order to investigate firm activities in both periods. In 1908 the insurance companies located in Tokyo Prefecture already formed a network of branch offices in the main cities of the whole country including the present provincial capitals, but other firms such as manufacturing, wholesale-retail companies, etc. had only a few branch offices, mainly located in Osaka. During the period 1908 to 1935 firm activities were largely developed and the number of branch offices increased evidently.<BR>We can classify the location patterns of branch offices in those days into 4 types, apart from the present location patterns in which their location in provincial capitals is dominant : the types located 1) in large markets or large cities such as Osaka, 2) in large cities in foreign countries or colonial capitals in those days, 3) in port towns such as Yokohama, Kobe, Moji, Shimonoseki, Otaru and Hakodate, and 4) in the present provincial capitals such as Sapporo, Sendai, Hiroshima and Fukuoka. Therefore, the present provincial capitals were still not so developed for the location of branch offices in 1935 as nowadays. In the years 1908 and 1935 Kanazawa was still an significant center.