ドイツ・プファルツ地方における観光・レクリエーション空間の組織化 The Organization of Space for Tourism and Recreation in the Palatime in Germany
The increasing amount of leisure time available has made the creation of space for recreation and tourism an urgent task in all industrial societies. This space not only to be adapted to the needs of its users, the tourists, but has also to the environment. Therefore a comprehensive organization on the levels of planning, management and information it necessary. This study examines the spatial organization of the Palatine in Germany as an example for a rural area that provides recreation and tourism possibilities.<BR>The Palatine is situated in the northern part of the upper Rhine Valley. It consists of mainly four parts from east to west. The population is concentrated in the Rhine Valley with large cities whose inhabitants look for the adjoining areas as recreational space. The Wine Road stretches from north to south along the foot of the mountain, with small old towns lined up among vineyard. The Palatine Forest is a mountain area about 600 m high made of red sandstone which features Germany's largest forest area, a major recreation and tourism destination designated as natural park and UNESCO biosphere reservat. That hill country to its west consists of small towns and agricultural areas.<BR>The regional planning emphasizes nature as the major tourism resource. Accordingly settlement and nature are strictly separated and tourism facilities concentrated around existing settlement area.<BR>The natural park area is managed by a special agency consisting of representatives of the regional and local authorities, but also of hiking clubs and other citizen organizations. It's aim is to maintain the "cultural landscape", which is only possible with support of the population in the area.<BR>Information and programs for visitors also involve local authorities as well as different clubs and private tourist facilities. Hiking or bicycle clubs offer guided tours, forest authorities offer forestry experience, hotels provide luggage transport for hikers or programs like nostalgic motorbike holidays. All programs are coordinated and advertised by the local tourist information center.<BR>This emphasis on the "software" of tourism rather than heavy investment in "hardware" like facilities and infrastructure mirrors the behavior of tourists. Especially long term visitors to the Palatine Forest spend most of their time with hiking and other activities outdoors. They are willing to spend more money on environment friendly accommodation or proper garbage collection, but show little interest in sport or leisure facilities.<BR>As German tourist resorts face an ever stronger competition from abroad, they concentrate on short term or day trip visitors or special groups like families, who can be attracted by specially tailored programs for children. A broad and comprehensive organization of the space used by tourists and nearby residents for recreation as described above is a necessity for resorts to survive.