入植農家からみた干拓地農業の変容過程-名古屋市近郊鍋田干拓地の事例- The Changing Process of Farming on Reclaimed Land from the Settlers Point of View--A Case Study of Nabeta Reclaimed Land in the Suburbs of Nagoya City
This research examines the changing process of farming on reclaimed land, as seen from the changing farming conditions of each settler, in the context of national land reclamation, which took place after the Second World War when agricultural production was increasing.<BR>As a case study, I researched the background of 136 settlers who started farming in 1962 on Nabeta Reclaimed Land, Aichi Prefecture, situated at the mouth of Kiso River. I examined the following 3 points : (1) settlement conditions of Nabeta Reclaimed Land, (2) the influence of Typhoon hazards from Ise Bay on the farming behavior of settlers and (3) the influence of urbanization from the metropolitan area Nagoya. The results are as follows : <BR>1) There occurred some differences in farming among settlers, depending upon the time of settlement, their native places, the land condition of their farm and their successors. The difference in farming was most greatly influenced by land conditions based on the time of settlement.<BR>2) The changing process of farming in Nabeta Reclaimed Land can be divided into 3 periods : 1 st period (commencement of farming), 2nd period (change in farming) and 3 rd period (settlement of farming).<BR>3) The farming conditions of settlers diversified gradually over 3 periods : 1 st period→2 nd period→ 3 rd period (Fig. 11). In the 1 st period, conditions were classified into thetype, mainly composed of field husbandry and animal husbandry. In the 3rd period, conditions could be classified into 4 patterns : field husbandry, animal husbandry, part-time farming and abandonment of farming. These were farming patterns that had been already started during the 2 nd period.<BR>4) In comparison with other reclaimed lands in Japan, the following can be considered as regional characteristics of Nabeta Reclaimed Land.<BR>First, about 20 percent of all settlers were close relatives of those people who were killed by Typhoon Ise Bay. They were less interested in farming, compared to normal settlers, and quite a few of them gave up farming when farming became diversified.<BR>Second, about 10 percent of cultivated land (an area of 302 ha) in Nabeta Reclaimed Land turned out to be owned by residents in Nagoya City. Further, settlers have been unable to make the most of accessibility to big markets, because of the lack of community integration in reclaimed land villages and because of the poor performance of specializing in one farm product.