ディーゼル排気の低エミッション化技術に関する検討 Study on Reduction of Exhaust Emission in Diesel Combustion
Mechanisms of nitric oxide formation and emission for a conventional high-speed direct-injection diesel engine have been studied by a stochastic model that takes chemical kinetics into account. In calculations cetene was used as a fuel and its initiation processes were expressed by a one-step global mechanism. Detailed reduced chemical mechanisms were employed for the processes of heat release and NO formation. The calculated NO concentration coincides with a value measured in an exhaust gas within 10%. It is shown that most NO is formed locally at temperatures higher than 2000 K under a range of excess air ratios, 1< λ <3.<BR>The effects of EGR and water addition on reducing NO and soot emission were also discussed. Results show that EGR up to 10% shifts the local excess air ratio from those points where NO is formed intensively to fuel rich regions without almost any temperature drop. Thus, EGR reduces NO emission without sacrificing thermal efficiency. EGR, however, reduces the local oxygen concentration and this causes the increase in soot emission. On the other hand, water addition shifts the local mixing ratio from the NO forming region to lower temperature region without decreasing local oxygen concentration in a fuel rich region. For this reason, water addition for reducing NO emission basically results in a drop in fuel economy but it does not increase soot emission. Furthermore, the effects of CO<SUB>2</SUB> addition on NO and soot emission were discussed and it is shown that CO<SUB>2</SUB> addition shifts the local mixture to rich at λ >1 and to lean at λ <1. It suggests that CO<SUB>2</SUB> addition is able to reduce NO and soot emission without the drop in thermal efficiency.
日本舶用機関学会誌 34(4), 253-260, 1999-04-01
The Japan Institute of Marine Engineering