文化のオーセンティシティと国立公園の成立 -観光現象を対象とした人文地理学研究の課題- [in Japanese] Authenticity of Cultures and the Establishment of National Parks : Geographical Problematics of Tourism [in Japanese]
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The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective through which a framework for understand-ing the establishment of tourist attractions can be proposed, not only in terms of the particular re-search field of tourism geography, but also as a rather general geographical problematics with rich po-tential for further discussion.<br> In Japan, the meaning or value of tourist attractions have been considered self-explanatory, hardly being treated with reference to any problematics. One of the important issues discussed in this paper is the assumption that tourist attractions are generated in a certain socio-historical con-text and that tourism and tourist attractions are the products of modernity. The point at issue in the above mentioned assumption is discussed in congruence with Hobsbawn's concept of "the invention of tradition" and also with recent research trends in the anthropology of tourism. It is possible to discuss two of issues in terms of the recent anthropological study of tourism. First, focusing on varieties of touristic events which have been neglected "intentionally" by conventional re-searchers, the effects of tourism can be reexamined in connection not only with their destructive effect on cultures, but also with their contribution to the creation and sustenance of ethnic identity; second, the system of knowledge can be reexamined as the verification of history of ideology, to be deduced from concept of "rethinking ethnography". Such a perspective on ethnography has revealed that such categories as ethnicity, primitive society, tradition, and paradise were all nothing but the "fic-tions", as in the case of the nation-state; Yamashita has also shown that the tourism is, in the same sense, one of the modern systems in which the authenticity of cultures is created. Consequently the second process can be seen as one of identifying tourism as a modern system in which the authentici-ty of cultures may be created.<br> In developing the prospects for empirical research, the research subject may be identified as clarifica-tion of the particulars of development of each of the individual tourist attractions shown in Table 1. Cur-rently, in Japan, most of the tourist attractions belong to the "cultural properties" covered by the Cul-tural Properties Protection Law. Here the point to be emphasized is that along with the establish-ment of authentic cultural properties, etc., a system such as the tourism exists, which is apt to be con-sidered somewhat contradictory.<br> Finally, taking the national parks in Japan as an example, a preliminary research project has been proposed. In sum, it can be presumed that the national parks in Japan have been positioned as tour-ist attractions, having the following particular characteristics in the period of their development. First, the national parks have been established in sites selected for their natural beauty and, moreo-ver, for being associated with the movement of preservation such as the historical site, place of scenic beauty, national monument and so on. Second, as an essential condition for designation of nation-al parks, the embodiment of the authenticity of Japanese culture has been required. Third, it should con-tribute to the national education through its common use. Finally, it should be noticed that the pro-cess of selecting the site proposed for national parks has identifying the authenticity of cultures in localities all over Japan.
- Geographical review of Japan, Series B.
Geographical review of Japan, Series B. 68(12), 792-810, 1995-12-01
The Association of Japanese Geographers