社会思想としての地域問題 Regional problems as Expressions of Social Thought

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ここで地域問題とは,近代国家において国内の特定の領域が提起する社会的,政治的,経済的問題のことである.それは当該国家の社会体制,すなわち広義の資源配分システムにかかわる問題であるので,国民社会のあり方の議論のかたちをとる.この意味で地域問題の提起は社会思想である.地域問題は国によってきわめて多様なかたちをとるし,現代世界においてその性格は急速に変容しつつある.しかし地域問題としてそれらの比較地誌,比較地理思想史の研究は必要であるので,ここでは地域問題のタイポロジーの基準の提示を,地域問題の内容,地域問題提起の主体,国家権力または体制の地域問題への対応という3っの視点から試みた.最後の視点,すなわち国家と地域の関係に関しては,第三世界諸国,旧ソ連・東欧のもと社会主義体制の諸国,そして西ヨーロッパ諸国の3つにわけて考察した.

Here, the phrase 'regional problem' refers to the situation in which a region or part of the territory of a nation-state constitutes social, political and/or economic problems for the society of the nationstate. This definition is necessary, firstly because in certain geographical schools, the Western concept of 'region' was understood as an operational concept, and was an exclusive object of geography (the regionalizing myth in geography referred to by David Livingstone); and secondly, the Japanese concept <i>chiiki</i> is still understood by some Japanese geographers to denote any demarcated space regardless of scale. A regional problem in this sense becomes explicit only when the region in question is incorporated into a nation-state, but the origin or cause of the regional problem exists from before the incorporation takes place. For instance, the Southern problem in Italy became a regional problem for Italy immediately after the unification of modern Italy in the 1860s, but the origin or remoter cause of the problem lay in the complete difference of the historical background of Southern Italy from those of Northern and Central Italy, and in the process of Italian unification (<i>risorgimento</i>), which was realized in the form of a military conquest of the South by the North. When the region in question was no longer part of the national territory, it ceased to cause regional problems. As another instance, for a long time Ireland constituted a regional problem of the British Empire (the Irish Question), but when the Free State of Ireland was formed in 1923, it ceased to be a regional problem; Northern Ireland, however, has to this day constituted a regional problem for the United Kingdom, as a sequela, so to speak, of the Irish Question.<br> From the comparative viewpoint, it is possible to point out certain criteria for a typology of regional problems in various states of the modern and contemporary world.<br> 1) Substance of the problem. Regional problems have multifarious facets-economic disparity; cultural differences, especially the imposition of an official language on people accustomed to a different dialect; political discrimination against certain regions by the central goverment. In this case, it is necessary to understand that at times, the substance of regional problems appears to differ according to whether it is observed from the viewpoint of elite culture or that of folk culture. If we applied the distinction made by Redfield between "great tradition" and "little tradition, " we find that, generally, religion-which by its very nature is considered to be universal-officially does not constitute a regional problem, but at the level of folk culture (or little tradition), it actually constituted and still constitutes the cause or motif of regional problems, as was seen in Ireland and is occurring in many 1) Period immediately after the unification of Italy (1860s). In this period, the problem in question was first created by the politicians of Northern Italy, who felt overwhelmed by the difficulty of the social and economic integration of the country, and by the disillusioned peasantry of the South, who expressed their dissatisfaction through rioting.<br> 2) Proposals regarding Southern problems by a limited number of Northern intellectuals (1870s).<br> 3) Proposals regarding problems by Southern intellectuals in the form of <i>meridionalismo</i> (from the 1880s up to around 1910). Their ideological position varied somewhat, from anarchism and socialism to romantic idealism, but they commonly recognized that the South had been exploited after unification, and for this reason insisted on regional measures to compensate for this exploitation.<br> 4) World War I and the period of the Fascist Government.

収録刊行物

  • 地理学評論. Ser. A  

    地理学評論. Ser. A 69(3), 145-164, 1996-03 

    The Association of Japanese Geographers

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  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10002430309
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
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  • 本文言語コード
    ENG
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  • ISSN
    00167444
  • NDL 記事登録ID
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    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-571
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    CJP書誌  NDL  J-STAGE 
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