Process Simulation of Cupola





Cupola is a counter current shaft reactor for production of cast iron. The solid charge consisting of coke, pig iron, steel scrap and flux is fed from the top of the reactor and blast is blown radially through the tuyeres. One-dimensional (1-D) models, wherein the governing equations are solved along the axial direction, have been reported in the literature. However, because of radial entry of blast through the tuyeres, incorporation of boundary conditions at the tuyere level poses a major difficulty in 1-D models. In this paper, a pseudo 2-D model for cupola has been proposed in which, the governing equations are employed in 2-D at the tuyere level and 1-D in the remaining portion. The solution of 2-D equations at the tuyere level generates the appropriate boundary conditions for the remaining 1-D portion above the tuyeres. In order to evaluate the performance of the pseudo 2-D model, a 2-D model was also developed. Further, the two models have been validated using reported experimental data. The study shows that the overall temperature and composition distributions obtained from the pseudo 2-D model are quite comparable with that obtained from the 2-D model. Also, the pseudo 2-D model was found to be computationally faster compared to the 2-D model. Hence, for practical design and operation exercise, pseudo 2-D model can be effectively used.


  • ISIJ international  

    ISIJ international 38(10), 1062-1068, 1998-10-15 

    The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan

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