近畿地方の3地点の黒色土の生成, とくに母材と過去の植生について Genesis of Ando-soils of Three Sites in the Kinki District, Japan, with Special Reference to Parent Materials and Past Vegetation

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著者

    • 鳥居 厚志 TORII Atsushi
    • 森林総合研究所関西支所土壌研究室 Forest Soil Laboratory, Kansai Research Center, Forestry & Forest Products Research Institute
    • 金子 真司 KANEKO Shinji
    • 森林総合研究所関西支所土壌研究室 Forest Soil Laboratory, Kansai Research Center, Forestry & Forest Products Research Institute
    • 荒木 誠 ARAKI Makoto
    • 森林総合研究所関西支所土壌研究室 Forest Soil Laboratory, Kansai Research Center, Forestry & Forest Products Research Institute

抄録

兵庫県の兎和野,滋賀県の饗庭野,和歌山県の潮岬の3ヵ所の黒色土壌について,母材の種類と堆積状態,生成に関わる過去の植生要因を調べた.一次鉱物組成と粘土鉱物組成を調べた結果,母材としては,3断面とも全層位で火山ガラスなどのテフラ起源粒子と岩片などの基岩風化物が混在していた.また兎和野土壌では,風成塵など外来の石英も混在していた.ゆえに黒色土の土層は,風成などの堆積物としての要素が強く,下部層位から上方に向かって累積的に発達したものであると推定された.一方,どの断面でも植物珪酸体の風化指数は表層に近づくほど小さく,この点からも土壌層の累積的な発達過程が裏づけられた.植物珪酸体分析と花粉分析の結果から,いずれの断面でも草原または疎林のような植生の継続が示唆された.また,炭化植物片の含量と腐植含量は,必ずしも相関が高くなかった.

Ando-soils with a humic and thick A horizon are widely distributed in Japan. These soils are mostly derived from tephra materials, and recent studies make it clear that these humic and thick A horizons have developed upward cumulatively. Several factors, such as continuation of grassland vegetation, topographic stability, and a suitable climate, are considered to be necessary for the genesis of Ando-soils. However, Andosoils are only sparsely distributed in the Kinki district of central Japan. To elucidate the pedogenetic processes of Ando-soils in the Kinki district, with special reference to the origin of parent materials and their deposition mode, and the vegetational environment in the past, we researched three soils, Towano soil (Hyogo Prefecture), Aibano soil (Shiga Prefecture), and Shio-no-misaki soil (Wakayama Prefecture). These soils have black or dark-brown colored A horizons over 40cm thick. That of Towano soil is over 2m thick and has alternating deep black and slightly light black sub-horizons. Judging from these stratified component of sub-horizons, it is presumed that the Towano soil has a cumulative development process. Microscopic mineral analysis for the sand fraction and X-ray diffraction analysis for silt and clay fractions were carried out to investigate the origin of parent materials of these soils and their deposition mode. Plant opal and pollen were analyzed to reveal the past vegetational history.<br>Primary mineral composition of the sand fraction showed a mixture of tephra-origin particles (volcanic glass, etc.) and bedrock-origin particles (groundmass fragment of bedrock, etc.). All the horizons of each soil contained volcanic glasses which were mostly derived from at least two kinds of tephra, but volcanic glass contents had no correlation with carbon contents. Silt and clay fractions were dominated by quartz in all horizons of each soil. Among them, the quartz grains in Towano soil were thought to be derived from foreign materials like eolian dust. A large number of plant opal grains have accumulated in most horizons of each soil; they are more strongly weathered in the deeper horizons. From these results, it is concluded that the studied Ando-soils have developed upward cumulatively under the balanced accumulation of organic matter and mineral materials. The results of plant opal analysis and pollen analysis suggested that open site vegetation like a grassland or sparse forest was maintained on the Andosoils. The results mentioned above were generally in accordance with previous research in north-eastern Japan.

収録刊行物

  • 第四紀研究  

    第四紀研究 37(1), 13-24, 1998-02-28 

    Japan Association for Quaternary Research

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10002509756
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN0034136X
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    04182642
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    4411878
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZM49(科学技術--地球科学--地質)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z15-67
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  CJP引用  NDL  J-STAGE 
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