釜石における鉱工業地域社会の内部構造とその発達過程 The Internal Structure of Kamaishi Mining-Manufacturing Community and Its Formation Processes
本稿は,わが国における近代鉄鉱工業の発祥地である釜石を対象に,鉄鉱工業地域社会の内部構造の発達過程を明らかにした.その際,宇部・日立の単一鉱工業地域社会における内部構造の発達過程と比較し,その類似性と相違性に留意した.<br> 釜石におけるマニュファクチュア段階での内部構造は,藩営時代の番所を中心に生産機能が展開する一極型であった.官営時代には役所を中心に,生産に加えて居住機能が展開する一極型となった.<br> 近代資本の田中製鉄所時代になると事務所を中心に生産,商業・サービス,居住の3機能からなる一極型圏構造の工業地域社会に,さらに銑鋼一貫生産体制の導入によって,一連極型圏構造の工業地域社会に発達した.生産増大に伴う生産機能地域の拡大は商業・サービス機能と居住機能を外方に押し出し,関連地域社会と重なる形で都市化を促進させ,一連極型圏構造の工業都市に成長した.<br> 宇部・日立が工業の一層の発展によって都市の性格を強くしたのに対し,釜石は工業の衰退に伴う跡地の都市的利用などによって都市の性格に変化した.<br> 単一鉱工業地域社会における内部構造の発達は,宇部・日立に典型的に見られるように,一極型から多極型へ,さらに一核心型圏構造への展開である.それに対して,釜石にあっては一極型から一連極型圏構造へと展開したが,一核心型圏構造の発達を見なかった.これは銑鋼一貫生産形態という大規模装置型生産の特性と地形による制約に起因する.
The present study attempts to identify the patterns and processes of the internal structure of the Kamaishi iron mining-manufacturing community in Iwate prefecture, Tohoku district. It then con structs a formation model of the internal structure of a single mining-manufacturing community by comparing Kamaishi with the Ube coal mining-manufacturing community in Yamaguchi prefecture and the Hitachi copper mining-electrical manufacturing community in Ibaraki prefecture.<br> Kamaishi, the birthplace of modern Japanese iron mining-manufacturing, has greatly contributedd to the growth of the Japanese steel industry.<br> The results of the study are summarized as follows.<br> (1) The Kamaishi iron mining-manufacturing industry was first developed by a clan in the feudal period. After being managed by the Meiji government, it grew into a modern enterprise.<br> (2) A mining-manufacturing community typically consists of a company community and the sur rounding affiliated community. In the feudal period, the Kamaishi iron mining-manufacturing commu nity had a unipolar zonal concentric structure with the production function in its core.<br> In the period when the Meiji government managed the industry, a unipolar concentric zonal struc ture with two cores, a production and a residential function, characterized the internal structure.<br> In the period of the Tanaka Ironwork Company, a unipolar zonal concentric structure with three cores, production, commercial and residential functions, characterized the internal structure. These were located around the company offices. This structure corresponded with the cases of Ube and Hita chi.<br> When the system of making steel from ore in the same plant was established, the size of the compa ny community grew twice. It was transformed from a unipolar concentric zonal structure to an ex panded unipolar concentric zonal structure. By enlargement of production functions, commercial and residential districts were moved outward.<br> In the period of decline, the residential area expanded into the surrounding area because both employ ees and retired people established their homes there, resulting in the expansion of the urbanized area.<br> (3) The internal structure of the Ohashi iron mining community had a unipolar concentric zonal structure, in which production, commercial, and residential districts were located around the company offices. A decline in the mining industry forced cutbacks in the Ohashi iron mining community. This process corresponded with the case of the Hitachi Mine's Motoyama community.<br> (4) The above analysis led to the internal structure model of the Kamaishi single miningmanufacturing community shown in Figure 9.<br> (5) A single mining-manufacturing community develops from a unipolar into a multipolar concentric zonal structure, and into a core concentric zonal structure such as in the Ube and Hitachi cases. The Kamaishi community developed from a unipolar to a expanded unipolar concentric zonal structure. It did not develop into a core concentric zonal structure because the company established the system of making steel from ore in the same plant. In addition, the shallow valley topography contributed to the present structure.<br> (6) The Kamaishi mining-manufacturing community developed from a company community to a manufacturing community, to a manufacturing city, and finally to a complex city. These formation processes correspond with the cases of Ube and Hitachi. While the development of the industry in Ube and Hitachi transformed them from manufacturing cities to complex cities, the decline of the industry and urban renewal of the old site in Kamaishi had a relative effect on the formation of the urban structure.<br> (7) The above analysis led to the internal structure model of a single iron mining-manufacturing community as proposed in Figure 10.
- 地理学評論. Ser. A
地理学評論. Ser. A 70(4), 216-234, 1997-04
The Association of Japanese Geographers