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The Amerind language family includes all the aboriginal languages of North and South America, except for those belonging to the Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene families. Comparative linguistic evidence from extant (or attested) Amerind languages indicates that Proto-Amerind-the language from which all Amerind languages derive-used a system of counting in which an obligatory numeral prefix, <sup>*</sup><i>ne</i>-, preceded the numeral root. The first three numerals in Proto-Amerind seem to have been <sup>*</sup><i>ne-k'<sup>w</sup>e</i>'1, '<sup>*</sup><i>ne-pale</i>'2, 'and <sup>*</sup><i>ne-q<sup>w</sup>alas</i>'3.'A fourth numeral, Proto-Amerind <sup>*</sup><i>ta-pale</i>'4, 'combined a reflexive prefix with the Proto-Amerind root for'2'in order to express the number'4.'