日本における長距離高速バス路線網の発達 Development of Transportation Network of Long-distance Expressway Bus in Japan
近年になって急成長を遂げた日本の長距離高速バス路線網の展開過程を把握し, 路線選定の要因について検討した結果, 次のような点を明らかにした。<br>日本の長距離高速バス事業は, 高速道路網がほぼ全国を覆うまでに拡大したことによって, 長距離バス輸送の高速化および定時性が確保できるようになったことに加えて, 夜間時間を有効に利用したいとする旅客の潜在的ニーズに対応した夜間運行, 鉄道運賃に対する低運賃設定, および車両のグレードアップなど, バス会社の営業戦略が成功したことにより発展した。また, 一般路線の通勤・通学を中心とする利用客の減少による収益の悪化を補い, 顧客増が期待できるために, 大都市圏や各地のバス事業者が参入した。そのため, 大都市圏相互間, 大都市と広域中心都市間, 大都市圏・広域中心都市と県庁所在都市間の路線を開設することが優先されてきたと言える。
Most of public bus transportation is planned to serve for short-distance transportation in a region. However, as the development of expressway, long-distance bus transportation has become prevalent which can transport long distant passengers with high speed and regular time. Long-distance expressway bus is here defined as a bus service which transport passengers of over 300km in distance on expressway.<br>This study is to see the development process of rapidly increased service network of longdistance expressway bus, and then to examine the factors which have contributed to decide the routes of bus service line in Japan.<br>The data used are <i>An Outline of Long-distance Expressway Bus</i>: <i>over 300km</i> published by the Ministry of Transportation in 1992. The total number of corporations that operated longdistance expressway bus in 1992 was 91, and that of bus service lines was 159.<br>Some of findings are summarized as follows:<br>After 1988, the number of corporations of long-distance expressway bus is rapidly increased by the capital of private railway in central and of bus corporation in local, and also the number of passenger is rapidly increased. This is owed to the expansion of expressway in nation-wide, the high speed of bus service, and attainment of punctuality in the service. Besides, the business strategy of expressway bus corporation was successful to mobilize potential passengers at night time, to lower transport cost compared with railway, and to grade up the bus facilities. Confronted with the decrease in number of passengers, the local bus corportation has opened up expressway bus service lines which could be expected to increase the passengers.<br>Most service line of long-distance expressway bus is departs and arrives at greater cities and central cities of each region. This is because the potential demands among greater cities and other central cities of each region, or prefectural capitals are relatively greater than that among other small cities. These results show that this tendancy will continue in the future.
- 季刊地理学 = Quarterly journal of geography
季刊地理学 = Quarterly journal of geography 47(3), 203-211, 1995-09-01
The Tohoku Geographical Association