脊椎動物の進化における陸生適応と腎臓の多様性-両生類の中心に- [in Japanese] Terrestrial Adaptation and Diversity of the Kidney Functions in the Evolution of Vertebrates, Amphibia [in Japanese]
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The Amphibia bridge the phyletic gap between the aquatic fishes and the terrestrial vertebrates. This transition has involved many interesting changes of metabolisms. In this short review, we have attempted to summarize the kidney structure and functions on the osmoregulations in the Amphibia. Amphibians excrete the water absorbed through their skin as a dilute urine. Pronephros of tadpoles may start to work in the hatching stages and metanephros is well developed and functions. Glomerular filtration rate is relatively large and glomerular intermittency is important to regulate urine production. The proximal tubule reabsorbs approximately 20-45% of filtered water and sodium. Absorption is driven by the basolateral Na<SUP>+</SUP>, K<SUP>+</SUP>-ATPase common to all tubular cells. The diluting segment, early parts of distal nephron, highly develops basolateral interdigitation and reabsorbs approximately 40% of filtered Na<SUP>+</SUP>, K<SUP>+</SUP>, and Cl<SUP>-</SUP>, but is impermeable to water, thus this part results in the formation of hypo-osmotic tubular fluid. In the late distal tubule, the primary mechanism of reabsorption may be via a luminal NaCl synporter, driven by the ubiquitous Na<SUP>+</SUP>, K<SUP>+</SUP>-ATPase on basolateral membrane. In collecting tubule, there are two types of cells, the principal cells and the intercalated cells. Many hormonal and nervous regulations are involved in the glomerular filtration rate and reabsorptions in the amphibian nephrons.
- Biological Sciences in Space
Biological Sciences in Space 14(1), 22-31, 2000-03
Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space