建築時における建築物の環境負荷に関する調査研究-積み上げ方式による固定資源量と廃棄物発生量の評価- Investigation of Environmental Loading During Building Construction-Estimation of Fixed Resource Consumption and Waste Discharge by Accumulation Method-

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地球環境問題に大きく関与する構造物の建設に対し, 省資源, 省エネルギーおよび廃棄物の低減化を計るため, 実際の構造物の環境負荷量を定量的に把握することは重要である。今回, モデルビルとして, 用途「事務所」, 構造「S造」, 延床面積「15, 803m<SUP>2</SUP>」, 地上14階, 塔屋1階, 地下2階 (地下のみSRC造) の構造物を対象に, 約4, 000工事科目を19の基礎素材に分類し, 材料金額ベース95%以上の寄与率で, 建築時における固定資源量を, 直接に積み上げて算出し, 床面積あたり約2, 800kg/m<SUP>2</SUP>の値を得た。エネルギー消費量・二酸化炭素排出量は, 各々19基礎素材毎のエネルギー原単位 (kcal/基礎素材kg) , および二酸化炭素排出量 (C-kg/基礎素材kg) を用い算出し, 各々床面積あたり444Mcal/m<SUP>2</SUP>, 435C-kg/m<SUP>2</SUP>であった。これは, S造地上部ばかりでなく, SRC造の地下部 (地域冷暖房施設と駐車場) に起因する原材料の鉄およびセメントに最も寄与していると考えられる。さらに「階層」「延床面積」等といった建物特性が異なる6タイプのS造事務所ビルをモデルビルとして解析し, 床面積あたりの二酸化炭素排出量が約200C-kg/m<SUP>2</SUP>前後の値を得た。<BR>また, 建設廃棄物排出量については, モデルビルを基に10工種27資材の排出原単位を設定し, 785工事科目に関し積み上げ方式により算出し, 同様な建物特性を有する対象と比較した。

The overall aim of this study-in-progress is to obtain a quantitative grasp of the environmental loading imposed by the construction of buildings, which is closely related to global environment issues, with the aims of saving energy and resources and reducing waste. As a step towards this goal, we investigated the fixed resource consumption, energy consumption, CO<SUB>2</SUB>emissions, and waste discharges resulting from construction of a model 14-story steel-structure office building with two basement floors and one penthouse floor. Details of the resources used in carrying out about 4, 000 different construction tasks were collected. Various techniques were used to classify the materials used in these tasks into 19 basic types, and based on this classification, a resource investment index (kg of each material per m<SUP>2</SUP>) was derived. The total resource investment in the building, (about 2, 800 kg/m<SUP>2</SUP>) and also in six similar buildings of different sizes was then calculated. On the basis of the calculated resource investment in each building, the energy invested in construction was calculated from available figures of standard energy input. This was then converted into a figure for CO<SUB>2</SUB>emission, which turned out to be about 435 C-kg/m<SUP>2</SUP>. This high output value seems attributable to the use of iron and cement not only in the superstructure of steel frame construction but also in the steel frame and reinforced concrete composite substructure incorporating two basement floors (for district heating and cooling facilities, and a parking area) . The amount of waste discharged during construction of the model building was also studied. Consumption/discharge ratios were defined for 27 materials used in 10 different tasks, and these were used to calculate the waste generated in carrying out 785 construction processes. The total waste discharge as calculated in this way was compared to values derived by multiplying the floor area of the building by mixed waste values for another building with the same attributes.

収録刊行物

  • 廃棄物学会論文誌  

    廃棄物学会論文誌 11(2), 74-83, 2000-03-31 

    Japan Society of Material Cycles and Waste Management

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10004547518
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN10414685
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    1883-1648
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    5333882
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZN5(科学技術--建設工学・建設業--都市工学・衛生工学)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z16-2213
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  NDL  J-STAGE 
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