ドイツ語圏における第2次大戦後の人文地理学の歩み-ハンス・ボーベクからベノ・ヴァーレンに至る社会地理学を中心として- The Post-war Development of Human Geography in German-speaking Countries:With Special Reference to German Social Geography from Hans Bobek to Benno Werlen
The aim of this paper is to study how German social geography has been developed since the Second World War.<BR>The obvious differences in geographical thought between H. Bobek and W. Hartke canbe noted, although both geographers played leading roles in the post-war development of German social geography. Bobek founded German social geography by publishing his paper in1948 and debated vigorously with E. Otremba in 1961. He also published famous papers on"main stages in socio-economic evolution" and "rent capitalism" as empirical studies. Atthe same time, he contributed to constructing a scientific system of geography which becamea paradigm that would lead German geography until the German Geographic Congress Kiel in 1969. On the other hand, Hartke studied spatial actions of small social groups or individuals by means of an indicator approach as shown in studies of regional identity based on analysing newspapers in 1952 and of social fallows in 1956. Establishing the 'Munich school', he had a large impact on German geography. In the 1970s studies on action spaces of individuals rather than of social groups were developed in German social geographyby introducing behavioral geography of English-speaking countries. And, in the late 1970s when a textbook titled 'Social geography' was first published, the 'Munich school' of German social geography was already on the decline.<BR>Comparing the development of German geography with that in English-speaking countries, old-fashioned systems and organizations of universities and geographical associations are observed in Germany; due to poor contact with German sociology and its lack of empirical studies, the development of social geography was delayed in Germany, although analyses at the micro level depending on field surveys were highly developed.<BR>At the German Geographical Congress Kiel held in the midst of university strugglesin 1969 students and young geographers asserted the abolishment of regional geography (Landerkunde) and Landschaftskunde by adopting concepts and theories of positivist geography introduced by D. Bartels in his habilitation thesis in 1968. This event had a serious effect on German geography. The education of regional geography took a step back, but curiously, more books on regional geography were published than before. Quantitative methods have been developed, while it was required to be socially relevant. However, positivist geography itself could not so spread as it did in English-speaking countries ; after its decline not only humanistic geography but also Marxist geography were not so highly developed as in English-speaking countries.<BR>Under the existence of plural paradigms some new movements appeared at the end of the 1970s. The reconstructing of regional geography and improving of scientific systems such as "Theoretical geography" published by E. Wirth were discussed and severely criticized by D. Bartels and G. Bahrenberg. In the early 1980s research on regional consciousness was examined as a new branch of social geography. In addition, social geography that depended on spatial actions came into existence.
地學雜誌 109(3), 445-468, 2000-06-25
Tokyo Geographical Society