プレート沈み込みにおける水の意義と伊豆・小笠原海溝のserpentineダイアピルを横切る速度構造 The Significance of Water on Plate Subduction and the Seismic Velocity Structure Across the Serpentine Diapir in the Izu-Bonin Trench
To predict earthquakes, huge efforts have been devoted to monitoring earthquakes, crustal deformations and water level during past decades, however, has been found to be extremely difficult. A new approach in marine seismic studies on earthquake prediction proposes focusing on the nature of the subducting plate boundary. Some Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillings and seismic reflection studies show fluid flows and the existence of hydrous minerals in the decollement zone. Considering that the subducting plate might contain much water, a number of hydrous minerals might be stable down to 150-300 km, in particular, serpentines and lawsonite.<BR>In 1998, the authors carried out a seismic experiment at the Izu-Bonin trench using Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) and controlled sources. The 130 km long E-W line crosses the Torishima forearc seamount, one of the serpentine diapirs at the eastern terminus. The velocity structure obtained along the line shows a relatively high velocity at the top and alow velocity at the bottom of the serpentine diapir. The velocity of the mantle wedge is slower than that of normal mantle. The dip of the subducting slab is initially quite gentle and abruptly becomes steep around 100 km from the trench axis. Hydration of peridotite in the mantle wedge might occur close to the Izu-Bonin trench axis and serpe ntines seem to be raised upward to the ocean bottom.
地學雜誌 109(4), 506-516, 2000-08-25
Tokyo Geographical Society