富士山北西斜面の森林限界付近における気候環境 Climatic Conditions near the Forest Limit on the Northwestern Slope of Mt.Fuji, Central Japan

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富士山北西斜面の森林限界付近において気象観測を実施した.森林帯の上限(C地点)および綾性化したカラマツのパッチ状群落出現部 (B地点)では気温および地温樹木限界付近(A地点)では地温および日射量を測定した.1994年7月から1年間の観測結果に基づいて樹木にとっての気候環境について考察した.B・C地点は暖かさの指数からみて森林の成立は可能である.日最低気温が0°C以下の低温な期間はB地点で約9カ月,C地点で約8カ月であった.土壌の凍結期間はA・B地点で約5カ月,C地点で約3カ月であった.B地点における凍結期間の終了が最も遅くまた長い.北西斜面は風衝地のため冬季の積雪深は1mを大きくは上回らないだろう.B地点とC地点との間には冬季の地温に顕著な相違があったことから,土壌凍結が調査地域の森林限界の形成に関わっている可能性がある.

This study attempts to quantify the vegetation dynamics of the forest limit and its environment on the northwestern slope ofmt. Fuji. In the study area, meteorological observations were carried out throughout the year. This paper describes climatic conditions near the forest limit based on observations from July 1994 to July 1995 and briefly considers the limits to tree growth.<br> Station A (2, 830m) was at the tree limit; Station B (2, 800m) was in a zone of patchy stunted <i>Larix</i>; and Station C (2, 650m) was at the limit of <i>Larix</i> open forest. Air (100cm) and soil (-10cm and -20cm) temperatures weremeasured at both Stations B and C, while only the soil temperature (-10cm) and solar radiation weremeasured at Station A.<br> The following results were obtained:<br> 1) The respectivemonthlymean air temperatures at Stations B and C were 12.0 and 12.7°C in July, the warmestmonth, and -13.2 and -12.7°C in January, the coldestmonth. The annual ranges of air temperature at Stations B and C were 25.2 and 25.4°C, respectively.<br> 2) At Stations A, B, and C, themaximum soil temperature at a depth of 10cm was recorded in August (13.4, 13.4, and 11.6°C, respectively), while theminimum was recorded in February (-10.8, -11.3, and -3.5°C, respectively). At Station C, the soil temperature at 10cm depth jumped abruptly to near 0°C on 17march 1995 and remained stable near 0°C for 2months. This phenomenon likely results from the infiltration ofmelt water.<br> 3) The diurnal variation in solar radiation varied with the season. At Station A, the peak solar radiation in the summer usually occurred in themorning because of afternoon cloud cover. The days on which the diurnal variation in solar radiation showed such that curre decreased after October. <br>4) The warmth indices at Stations B and C were 19.1°C•month and 22.8°C•month, respectively. Therefore, forest can grow at these stations.<br> 5) The low-temperature period, when the air temperature drops below 0°C, lasted for about 9months at Station B and for about 8months at Station C. 6) At Stations A and B, the frozen period was about 5months, while it was 3months at Station C. The frozen period lasted the longest and ended the latest at Station B.<br> 7) The winter air temperature and solar radiation implied that there was little snow in the study area and that the period of continuous snow cover was short. In this region, strong prevailing winter wind is the reason for the small amount of snow.<br> 8) Itmay be true that soil freezing plays an important role as a controlling factor of the forest limit, judging from themarked difference in the length of freezing period between Stations B and C.

収録刊行物

  • 地理学評論. Ser. A  

    地理学評論. Ser. A 73(5), 435-447, 2000-05-01 

    The Association of Japanese Geographers

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10004958055
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN1016484X
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    NOT
  • ISSN
    00167444
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    5362311
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-571
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  CJP引用  NDL  J-STAGE 
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