日常的な生活空間における視覚障害者の空間認知 Spatial Cognition of Blind and Visually Impaired People in Their Daily Living Space

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本研究は,従来,実験室的な空間に限定して考えられることの多かった視覚障害者の空間認知を,日常的な生活空間において考察した.被験者は主に社会福祉法人京.ライトハウスに所属する視覚障害者であり,対象地域は被験者の歩行訓練が行われる東西1,000m,南北600mほどの地区である.視覚障害者の認知距離と認知地点の布置(認知座標)について,全盲者・弱視者・晴眼者を比較考察した.<br> その結果,ルート型の知識を問う認知距離実験,サーヴェイ型の知識を問う認知座標実験のいずれにおいても,視覚障害者の認知地図の歪みは,晴眼者よりも大きいことがわかった.しかし,この歪みの特性には,視覚障害者の障害の度合いのみならず,視覚利用の経験や,.障害の履歴による差がみられた.

This research investigates the characteristics of spatial cognition for blind and visually impaired people in their daily living space. Conventional research related to spatial cognition in the field of psychology has not always examined spatial cognition or behavior in a daily living space. This paper focuses on testing whether conventional geographical methods are useful for spatial cognitive studies of blind and visually impaired people. The following two methods were used: 1) estimation of cognitive distance (experimentation for route-based knowledge), and 2) estimation of the bidimensional distribution of cognitive points (experimentation for survey knowledge). The results are summarized as follows.<br> The evaluation of distance estimation revealed that sighted group relatively overestimate shorter trips and underestimate longer trips. Although this seems to reflect an implicit scaling effect, the effect was not confirmed in the case of the congenitally blind and the partially blind/slight groups. It can therefore be said that these groups feel strong resistance toward longer trips. In regard to the slight group, such overestimation of cognitive distance depends on how long they have had the visual impairment. In the case of the congenitally blind group, the overestimation depends on the fact that they must use more spatial cues than slight group for movement in a daily living space.<br> Understanding Euclidean space helps to form new movement routes and also enhances the flexibility of spatial behavior. Difficulty in the understanding of Euclidean space often causes highly distorted cognitive maps. The results of the analyses show large distortions in the bidimensional distribution of cognitive points in the cognitive maps for blind and visually impaired people. The adventitiously blind group and the partially blind group were seen as holding a relative positional relationship with cognitive points. They showed alignment of axes located at right angles to the main streets of the study area. The congenitally blind, on the other hand, did not show such a positional relationship because of their difficulties in understanding the Euclidean map.<br> Consequently visually impaired people show large distortions and errors in their estimation of distance and distribution on cognitive maps. Moreover, such distortions and errors are the results of their visual experience or personal history of impairment, as well as the degree of their impairment. It can therefore be concluded that further attention is required to the relationship between spatial cognition and factors such as the attributes of individuals, the contents of mobility training, and the period of training.

収録刊行物

  • 地理学評論. Ser. A  

    地理学評論. Ser. A 73(11), 802-816, 2000-11-01 

    The Association of Japanese Geographers

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10004958379
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN1016484X
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    NOT
  • ISSN
    00167444
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    5555832
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-571
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  CJP引用  NDL  J-STAGE 
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