東京湾の港湾における環境施設の形成過程と地域特性 The Formation of Environmental Waterfront Facilities and Their Hinterland in the Ports of Tokyo Bay

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東京湾は, 1950年以降港湾施設や臨海工場の立地のため広大な埋立造成が行われ, 自然の海岸が多く失われてしまった。このため1970年代後半から東京湾各港において, 港湾地帯の環境改善を進める計画がたてられるようになった。本研究は東京港で実証した公園緑地の形成過程を, 東京湾内の千葉港, 川崎港, 横浜港における公園緑地を中心とした環境施設に対して同様な分析を行って東京港と比較することにより, 東京湾の港湾地帯における環境施設の形成過程の体系化とそれぞれの港湾がもつ地域特性を明らかにすることを目的とする。<br>研究の結果, 東京湾の港湾における環境施設の形成過程は, 1970年代から港湾環境整備施設の制度化により, 港湾管理者を中心とする環境施設が整備され, その形成過程は緑地広場, 運動施設整備期から始まり, 70年代後半からの自然環境回復施設整備期を経て, 80年代から90年代にかけて親水施設整備期, 90年代の集客施設整備期に進展している。さらに東京湾の港湾における環境施設形成の内容を見ると, 複数の自治体を後背地にもつ東京港, 千葉港と, 同一の自治体である川崎港, 横浜港の2つのグループに分けることができ, 後背地の都市がもつ地域の特性が形成過程に差をもたらしている。

In this study, the term, environmental waterfront facilities means those that port administrators, reclamation developers and the local governments separately or jointly construct to create a water-friendly amenity in the port area.<br>Since the 1950s, most of the original coastlines of Tokyo bay have been lost by the vast reclamation for the seaside industrial factories and port facilities. As a result, from the latter half of the 1970s, the port administrators of Chiba, Tokyo, Kawasaki, Yokohama etc. have made their own planning to improve waterfront environmental conditions in amenity terms. In a separate paper, as a case study on Wakasu Seaside Park in Tokyo port, the author analyzed the formation process of parks and open spaces in Wakasu Seaside Park. The study found that the historical accumulation of main facilities, which started from open spaces and evolved into commercial conventional facilities such as Wakasu Golf Links in this park, through the construction of sport facilities, restoration facilities of natural environment and waterfront recreational facilities. These contents of facilities in this park show multilayer structure. This structure can be applied to the formation process of the whole parks and open spaces in Tokyo port. The present study shows that this structure can be seen in other environmental waterfront facilities in ports of Tokyo bay.<br>The present study reached the following conclusion. In the ports of Tokyo bay, since the 1970s, with the construction of open spaces and sport facilities, the environmentally friendly waterfront facilities have been created. In the latter half of the 1970s, the restoration facilities of natural environment started to emerge, and from the 1980s to the 1990s, the construction of waterfront recreational facilities and commercial conventional facilities has been carried out. Now, these various kinds of facilities are coexisting. However, these areas can be divided into two groups according to the main nature of the environmental waterfront facilities which they accommodate. One is the ports of Tokyo and Chiba, and the other is the ports of Kawasaki and Yokohama. The hinterland of Tokyo-Chiba group is composed of more than two local governments; on the other hand, the port administration of Kawasaki-Yokohama group works under their respective local government. Therefore, the formation processes of environmental waterfront facilities in the two are different, reflecting the characteristics of each hinterland.

収録刊行物

  • 季刊地理学

    季刊地理学 54(2), 73-91, 2002

    学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10008731540
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN10379267
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    09167889
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    6198405
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG7(歴史・地理--日本--地方史・誌)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-383
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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