埋立の変遷と埋立関連技術(<小特集テーマ>土構造物の変化・変遷) History of Reclamation and the Current State of Art(Theme: Technological and Historical Changes of Earth Structure)
As the three-quarters of the country is mountainous, reclamation of low and wet land along the coast was the only way to expand the farmland in Japan since the beginning of her history. During the Edo-era (16^<th> to 19^<th> Century), sea-reclamation found a variety of functions such as development of residential area, transportation, and landfill. Now huge artificial islands off-shore are created for locating international and domestic airports. The article summarizes the history of reclamation in Japan and discusses the current state of the art necessary for its construction and environmental preservation.