職場環境がコンピュータ技術者の精神的健康度および離職意向に及ぼす影響 THE EFFECT OF PERCEIVED WORK AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHRACTERISTICS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND INTENTION TO QUIT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROFESSIONALS

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<b>目的</b> 国内の労働職場環境の変化によるストレスを先取りする典型的な産業・職場である情報関連・通信産業のコンピュータ技術職を対象に,労働職場環境のマクロとミクロのストレッサーと,精神的健康度および離職意向との関連性を,組織の収益性と個人要因である成長欲求度を含め明らかにし,組織の生産性と労働者のウェルビーングの両方を改善する方法の示唆を得ることを目的とした。<br/><b>方法</b> 国内の 2 つの情報関連産業の組合連合体を通じ,調査協力の承諾が得られた53社に対し,割当法を用い各社30人,計1,590人の組合員を対象に web 上の質問票調査を無記名形式で実施した。有効回答率は66%(53社,1,049人),うち約 8 割を占める技術職種を分析対象とした。分析には,基本属性,就業特性,労働時間特性,労働職場特性,組織の収益性,個人要因として Hackman と Oldham の成長欲求度の各項目と,労働職場環境特性の尺度を先行研究の概念モデルを参考にマクロとミクロのストレッサーに分類し用いた。精神的健康度と離職意向の尺度を従属変数として用い,階層的重回帰分析による関連性の検証を試みた。<br/><b>成績</b> 仕事の量・質的負荷は,精神的健康度および離職意向において重要な要因であった。また,マクロレベルのストレッサーが精神的健康度及び離職意向の増大に強く影響していた。さらに,労働職場環境特性以外に精神的健康度は成長欲求度が,離職意向は組織の収益性と精神的健康度が,重要な要因であった。<br/><b>結論</b> 労働職場環境特性と精神的健康度及び離職意向との関連性が明らかとなり,それらの対策が個人と組織に有益であることが示唆された。

<b>Purpose</b> The information technology (IT) and service industry in Japan is known to have many work-related stressors, and requires more effective stress reduction to control an elevated turnover rate and adverse health effects. However, little research has been performed using either individual or organizational outcomes (e.g., psychological distress and intention to quit) to determine micro and macro-level stressors on information technology (IT) professionals. This study aimed to examine the effect of perceived work and organizational characteristics (PWOC) as micro and macro-level stressors on psychological distress and intention to quit, controlling for profitability of the organization and individual characteristics on IT professionals in Japan.<br/><b>Methods</b> We conducted a web-based questionnaire at fifty-three Japanese IT-related companies. From May to June of 2003, ten to thirty people from each company, who were chosen according to quota method indicators through the labor unions, voluntarily participated in this study. Participants accessed our webpage, which was designed with a self-administrated questionnaire and was accessible by password. The data they entered were sent to our database automatically. The questionnaire consisted of items concerning socio-demographic status; office size; employment characteristics; work hour characteristics; profitability of the organization; a novel 29-item scale (PWOC); as well as individual characteristics. The response rate was 66% (n=1049). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed data on an IT engineers' group separately (n=871).<br/><b>Results</b> Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that each model explained 23% and 26% of the variance in psychological distress and intention to quit, respectively. PWOC sub-scales, which are related to macro-level stressors (e.g., undeveloped management systems and career and future ambiguity), affect not only psychological distress but also intention to quit. Objective data of macro-level stressors such as increased profitability determine intention to quit, independently controlling for their PWOC. Also, growth need strength was an important personal characteristic for psychological distress. The results allow us to speculate on macro as well as micro-level stressors for ways that organizations might reduce IT professionals' stress and increase their productivity.<br/><b>Conclusions</b> This study suggests that macro-level stressors are important factors for psychological distress and intention to quit for IT professionals, as well as micro-level stressors. Since occupational stress is costly in terms of organizational outcomes, further research on occupational stress measuring individual and organizational outcomes both within and beyond the Japanese IT industry should prove useful.

収録刊行物

  • 日本公衆衛生雑誌 = JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH  

    日本公衆衛生雑誌 = JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 53(3), 196-207, 2006-03-15 

    Japanese Society of Public Health

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10018140491
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00189323
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    05461766
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    7882396
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZS17(科学技術--医学--衛生学・公衆衛生)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z19-216
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  CJP引用  NDL  J-STAGE 
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