Surface Hardening Treatment for C.P. Titanium and Titanium Alloys in Use of Ar-5%CO Gas
Surface hardening of C.P. (commercially pure) titanium and titanium alloys in use of Ar–5%CO gas was investigated in the temperature range between 973 K and 1 123 K. Titanium materials used were α+β type alloy of Ti–4.5%Al–3%V–2%Mo–2%Fe (SP-700) and β type alloy of Ti–15%V–3%Cr–3%Sn–3%Al (Ti-15-333). Oxidation accompanied with surface hardening in use of Ar–5%CO gas is much reduced compared with that of Ar–20%CO<sub>2</sub> gas. Surface hardening was evaluated by both of the maximum surface hardness and hardening layer depth obtained from hardness distribution profiles in the subsurface region. The former is the highest in C.P. titanium and the lowest in Ti-15-333 alloy, and the latter is the deepest in Ti-15-333 alloy and the shallowest in C.P. titanium. Surface hardening in C.P. titanium is caused by solid solution hardening of oxygen and carbon enriched in the subsurface region. Enrichment of these interstitials in the subsurface region of SP-700 or Ti-15-333 alloys causes the increase of α volume fraction in α+β two phases or phase transformation from β to α+β two phases, respectively, and surface hardening is primarily controlled by volume fraction of α phase hardened by interstitials enrichment. The other β type titanium alloy of Ti–15%Mo–5%Zr–3%Al yields much marked surface hardening over Ti-15-333 alloy. All of these results were analyzed and discussed based on oxygen and carbon concentration profiles, which were obtained by EPMA, and were also calculated by uni-dimensional diffusion model.
- ISIJ international
ISIJ international 46(9), 1329-1338, 2006-09-15
The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan