Development of Ultrahigh Strength Steel by Electroslag Refining : Effect of Inoculation of Titanium on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties




    • MAITY S. K.
    • Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory
    • BALLAL N. B.
    • Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology


A low alloy steel with the nominal chemical composition of C 0.3%, Mn 1%, Cr 4%, Mo 1%, V 0.4% with lower amount of P and S is prepared by electroslag refining (ESR). The result of the mechanical properties of this steel after tempering confirms that this steel may be placed in the family of ultrahigh strength steel. The tensile, yield and impact strength of this steel are 1650 MPa, 1450 MPa and 300 kJ/m<sup>2</sup> respectively, coupled with good ductility and hardness. Three more steels are prepared by inoculation of titanium during the ESR process similar to above composition. The analysis values of titanium in these steels are 0.07%, 0.20% and 0.4%. The addition of titanium resulted a sharp change in both microstructures and mechanical properties. It is noticed that 0.07% titanium results a sharp increase of tensile properties compared to un-inoculated steel. The tensile and yield strength of the 0.07% titanium steel are 1730 MPa and 1512 MPa, respectively. Further increase of titanium to 0.2% and 0.4% result a significant drop of mechanical properties compared to steel with no titanium. The optical, SEM, TEM and TEM-carbon replica studies confirms that at lower concentration of titanium (0.07%), finer Ti(C, N) particles are precipitated which are able to restrict the austenite grain sizes. The refinement of austenite grains and consequent finer lath martensite may be the possible reason for strenghthening. Higher titanium (≥0.2%) led to larger carbonitride particles which has no role on grain refinement.


  • ISIJ international  

    ISIJ international 46(9), 1361-1370, 2006-09-15 

    The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan

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