Removal of p-Alkylphenols from Aqueous Solutions by Combined Use of Mushroom Tyrosinase and Chitosan Beads
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Enzymatic removal of <I>p</I>-alkylphenols from aqueous solutions was investigated through the two-step approach, the quinone conversion of <I>p</I>-alkylphenols with mushroom tyrosinase (EC 184.108.40.206) and the subsequent adsorption of quinone derivatives enzymatically generated on chitosan beads at pH 7.0 and 45 °C as the optimum conditions. This technique is quite effective for removal of various <I>p</I>-alkylphenols from an aqueous solution. The % removal values of 97–100% were obtained for <I>p</I>-<I>n</I>-alkylphenols with carbon chain lengths of 5 to 9. In addition, removal of other <I>p</I>-alkylphenols was enhanced by increasing either the tyrosinase concentration or the amount of added chitosan beads, and their % removal values reached >93 except for 4-<I>tert</I>-pentylphenol. This technique was also applicable to remove 4-<I>n</I>-octylphenol (4NOP) and 4-<I>n</I>-nonylphenol (4NNP) as suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals. The reaction of quinone derivatives enzymatically generated with the chitosan's amino groups was confirmed by the appearance of peaks for UV–visible spectrum measurements of the chitosan films incubated in the <I>p</I>-alkylphenol and tyrosinase mixture solutions. In addition, 4-<I>tert</I>-pentylphenol underwent tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.
- Agricultural and Biological Chemistry
Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 70(10), 2467-2475, 2006-10-23
Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry