熊本市河内町におけるミカン産地の維持とその要因 : 集出荷業者の果たしてきた役割に注目して Factors in the Survival of Satsuma Orange Production Areas in the Kawachi District, Kumamoto, Japan : Focus on the Role of Jobbers in Producing Areas

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本稿では,系統外出荷組織の1形態である集出荷業者の集荷・販売活動の特徴と産地維持に果たしてきた役割の解明を試みた.事例地域はミカンの集出荷業者の集積が著しい熊本市河内町である.その結果,集出荷業者の集荷・販売活動の特徴である農家からミカンを集荷する際の契約事項(集荷する品種や量,期日・時間帯,家庭選別基準など)の簡素さが,ミカン価格低迷下での農家の営農継続に大きく寄与していたことが判明した.簡素な荷の受委託は,大規模に出作地を経営する農家や労働力基盤の弱体化した農家にとって,収穫・選別・出荷作業を省力化できる点で農協共選より好ましかったのである.しかし,1990年代に入りミカンの市場環境が変化すると,集出荷業者が苦境に立たされる一方で農協は糖度センサー選果機の導入を機に糖度別出荷を徹底して販売成績を上げたため,出荷委託先を農協に変更する農家も増え始めた.今後の熊本市河内町では,販売面で優位に立った農協を中心に産地再編が進むと思われるが,集出荷業者も農家ニーズに応じた多様なサービスの継続によって産地維持に一定の役割を果たし続けるものと考えられる.

This study attempted to elucidate the roles that minor fruit and vegetable shipment organizationsin a market dominated by a few major distribution chains have recently played in the survival of production areas, with the focus on jobbers in production areas and the roles of picking, packing, and sales. For a case study, we chose the Kawachi district of Kumamoto, which has many jobbers in producing areas. Their activities in the collection and sales of produce helped the production areas thrive beyond the mid-1970s when most of the Satsuma orange-producing areas declined due to the following.<br> 1) During the 20 years after World War II, the Kawachi district achieved rapid growth in Satsuma orange production. In prewar times, Kawachi was a famous Satsuma orange-producing area in Kyushu, but after the war, farmers in Kawachi expanded rapidly in a very short time. They were very active in buying and cultivating forests in the south of the prefecture, reachable within about 1 hour from Kawachi. The rapid growth was reflected in the ability to produce at low cost when the price of Satsuma oranges plummeted after the mid-1970s.<br> 2) During the period when the price of Satsuma oranges was very low, successful farmers responded positively to market needs and specialized. For example, they switched from regular Satsuma oranges to very fast-growing or very sweet varieties and placed plastic sheets on the ground to control the water content of the soil. The favorable climate enabled Satsuma oranges to be grown early. In addition, the growers already had good techniques and a history of production.<br> 3) The farmers in Kawachi were able to ship Satsuma oranges to jobbers under relatively relaxedconditions. They did not have to pick and ship certain types of produce at certain times, or a certain quantity in a given day or during a certain length of time. Furthermore, they had an interest in the selection criteria beforehand. Such trust between the farmers and jobbers stemmed from a labor force shortage and the fact that the farmers were aging. Moreover, for owners of large farms, this set-up was better than being a member or an agricultural cooperative association in terms of labor cost.<br> However, the jobbers faced difficulties in selling Satsuma oranges in the 1990s when Satsuma oranges mainly fell into two price ranges depending on their quality, and the overall trend for a stable fixed delivery strengthened. They faced difficulties because they had not been dividing and selling the Satsuma oranges in lots according to the variety or sweetness and had been selling at local markets where the price would plummet when there was a surplus. The latter problem was compounded by the absence of orange juice manufacturers who could have bought up the surplus, and thus stabilized the price somewhat. In contrast, agricultural cooperative associations were ableto increase their sales because they could sort and package according to their sugar content, measured by a device that they introduced.<br> Finally, many jobbers, who are not members of the established system, continue to work today inthe production areas. This means that they are helping to support sales of the produce of farmersthat have an otherwise weak labor force and the distribution of nonstandard Satsuma oranges orsmall quantities that the agricultural cooperative associations do not handle. It is predicted that, inthe near future, Satsuma, oranges in Kawachi will be mainly picked, packed, and sold by agriculturalcooperative associations, which are in a strong sales position, and that the jobbers will remainindependent and continue to offer various services to local farmers in response to their needs.

収録刊行物

  • 地理学評論  

    地理学評論 79(9), 455-480, 2006-08-01 

    The Association of Japanese Geographers

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10018862633
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11591990
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    13479555
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    8041082
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-571
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  NDL  J-STAGE 
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