Fungal and mycotoxin contamination of dried figs - a review
The production of dried figs involves some unique agricultural practices, which present significant risk of fungal infection of the fruit and subsequent mycotoxin contamination. The figs are allowed to ripen and shrivel on the tree, and after falling to the ground are collected daily, before being laid out for sun-drying for 5 days or more. During the stage of optimum water activity (around 0.8) for fungal growth and at temperatures from 25-30 °C, fungal infection can easily take place either through spore-contaminated dust or insect transmission to the fruit on the tree, or directly from the soil or during the course of subsequent sun-drying. A variety of different fungal species can infect dried figs and as a consequence, contamination can occur with a large number of secondary metabolites including aflatoxins B1, B2, G<sub>1</sub> and G<sub>2</sub>, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisin B2 and kojic acid. This review describes the agricultural production of dried figs and summarises the available data on occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in figs providing insights into possible infection routes.
マイコトキシン 58(2), 73-82, 2008-07-31
Japanese Society of Mycotoxicology