Human Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cell Culture as a Model System to Study Vascular Factors of Ischemic Brain
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Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced blood supply at the microcirculatory level. In the microvessels, the main elements of the reperfusion injury following brain ischemia are the transformation of endothelial cell-surface from anticoagulant to procoagulant property, leukocyte adhesion, sludge or clot formation. There is a paucity of information on how hemostatic factors, cytokines, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), being responsible for ischemic/reperfusion injury, interact with human brain microvessel endothelium (HBEC). There are no data furthermore about the expression of complement proteins of HBEC influenced by cytokines or fibrinolytic factors. Previously we established optimal conditions for culturing HBEC. Cell contraction induced by thrombin, plasmin, miniplasmin was recorded. The reassembly of F-actin was observed after thrombin treatment. ICAM-1 upregulation was measured following TNF-α, IL-1-α and thrombin incubation. Plasmin and miniplasmin downregulated the ICAM-1 in our cell culture system. Lp(a) modulated the thromboresistant cell-surface by reduction of t-PA and u-PA, but PAM remained unchanged. Lp(a) modulated the ET-1 production by early increasing and late decreasing, in a bimodal manner. The increased secretion of ET-1 by cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1-α) was reduced in the presence of Lp(a). Gradual increase of complement proteins (factor H, factor B, C4) was induced by cytokines. Plasmin and miniplasmin augmented a rapid increase of C4. Some factors of complex relationship between regulators and modulators of endothelial adhesion molecules have been demonstrated in a human cell culture system prepared from brain microvessel endothelium. A unified concept of sequential events of ischemia/reperfusion in the brain has not yet developed.
- Keio J. Med.
Keio J. Med. 45(3), 200-206, 1996-09-01
The Keio Journal of Medicine