アステカ王国史における自然災害と環境認識の変容 Changes in environmental cognition due to natural disasters in the history of the Aztecs

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アステカ王国は1428年から1521年まで,メキシコ盆地を中心に繁栄を極めた.その歴史の中でも,モテクソマ1世の治世(1440~1469年)は最も大きな社会変動期であった.1440年代には自然災害頻発し,1450年からの5年間,異常気象による大飢饉が続いた.食糧の備蓄は底をつき,疫病が蔓延し,多くの民衆がメキシコ盆地を去り,王国は存亡の危機に瀕した.これを機に,王国は旱魃被害の少ないメキシコ湾岸地方を攻略した.主都近郊では耕作地の開拓と水道橋建設を進め,災害対策を拡充した.また繰り返し起こる旱魃を理由に,伝統儀礼を再編し,メキシコ盆地における宗教的・政治的支配力を誇示する機会に利用した.その結果,アステカ王国は急速にその勢力を拡大していった.<BR>本稿では,異常気象の記録史料を近年の年輪気候学研究の成果と照合し,自然災害の社会的影響と王国の対応策を分析し,アステカ社会における環境認識の変容を考察する.

The Aztec Kingdom, formed by a Triple Alliance among the city-states of Tenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan in the Valley of Mexico, immensely flourished from 1428 to 1521. In particular, the age of Motecuzoma I (1440-1469) in Aztec history is thought to be a period filled with drastic social changes. During the 1440s natural disasters struck one after another, and a severe famine lasted for 5 years beginning in 1450 due to a series of extraordinary weather events. Food shortages, epidemics, and population outflow from the Valley seriously affected the fate of the Kingdom. Archaeological evidence of child sacrifices offered to the Rain god, corresponding to this period, have been unearthed from the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Just after the devastating disasters, however, the Aztec armies immediately invaded the fertile and rainy region of the Gulf Coast. The State quickly undertook both the expansion of <I>chinampa</I> fields over the southern lakes in the Valley and the reconstruction of an aqueduct for the purpose of preventing future disasters. Likewise, the cyclic occurrence of drought was interpreted in the Aztec mythological context and was employed in order to modify the traditional ritual called "Binding of the Years" for displaying the State's religious and political influence in the Valley. Consequently the Kingdom rapidly expanded its sphere of influence all over Mesoamerica.<BR>This paper analyzes the socio-cultural effects of these natural disasters and the Aztec style of disaster management, based upon ethnohistorical records together with related dendrochronological research results. Then it theorizes the changes in environmental cognition in Aztec society from a diachronic point of view.<BR>In civilized societies people's experience of coping with various disasters could motivate them to reorganize their environmental cognition, to direct their attention to environmental problems, and to develop environmental technology.

収録刊行物

  • 第四紀研究 = The Quaternary research

    第四紀研究 = The Quaternary research 51(4), 215-221, 2012-08-01

    Japan Association for Quaternary Research

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10030972815
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN0034136X
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    ART
  • ISSN
    04182642
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    023919705
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z15-67
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  NDL  J-STAGE 
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