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The materials examined in the study were obtained in the regions of Syowa Station of Japan, McMurdo Station of U.S.A. and Mirny Station of U.S.S.R. Ice-blocks of the materials, composed of mosses and algae, were collected from pools and wet beaches. The observations of unicellular animals have been carried out always in living condition. From these samples have been found seven species of the Mastigophora including a single flagellate organism which is probably new to science, 13 forms of the Rhizopodea and 12 kinds of the Ciliatea, and most of them are cosmopolitan. The Rhizopodea carrying a test, the so-called Testacea of common moss-dwellers, is the most excellent group in number of species. However, when ice-blocks were melted, Amoeba and several common species of the Ciliatea were frequently found, and of them Coleps and Verticalla survived to the end when the samples were kept in room temperature for a long time.