広域流通環境下における豚の地域内自給流通構造に関する経済的研究 : 沖縄県における豚流通の特質とその経済的意義(農学科) [in Japanese] Economic Structure of Local, Regional and National Hog Markets in the Self-Sufficient Region-Okinawa's Case (Department of Agriculture) [in Japanese]
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The Purpose of this study is to analyze the economic structure of local, regional and national hog markets in the self-sufficient region. In Okinawa, the local and regional hog markets play a very important role compared with the national hog market. Therefore, in this study the market economic conditions for the local and regional hog markets in Okinawa were made clear. The hog marketing in Okinawa was chosen as the subject of the study of the following reasons : Hog production is one of the most important income sources for the agriculture in Okinawa and also pork is the most popular and has the most important position among meat. While the hog market in other areas is characterized by the national market, that in Okinawa depends mainly on the local and regional markets traditionally. The outline of the discussion of this study is as follows : 1. Consumption structure The quantity of pork consumption per person a year in Okinawa is larger than that of national average. For example, the quantity of pork consumption per person a year in Okinawa in 1979 was 7.9 kilograms which exceeded about 50% that of national average. And the percentage of the quantity of pork consumption in the whole meat of national average is 47% while that in Okinawa is 57%. 2. Production structure The percentage of hog farmers in the whole farmers in Okinawa is larger than that of national average, however hog numbers on a farm in Okinawa are smaller than those of national average. There exist still many small sized hog farmers in Okinawa. A small number of hogs is produced by agricultural holdings other than farm households in Okinawa in comparison with that of national average. The hog production cost in Okinawa is higher than that outside of the prefecture. Higher feed prices and laber costs in Okinawa than in other areas bring about this situation. In Okinawa, small sized hogs are produced and sold locally, on the contrary, in other areas, consumers prefer large sized hogs to small sized hogs. Therefore, it is difficult to sell hogs produced in Okinawa to other areas. 3. Market structure One of the characteristics of the hog and pork marketing in Okinawa is that a slaughterer performs most of the hog and pork marketing functions between the producer and the consumer. Areas where a slaughterer buys hogs and sells pork are usually fixed in the local and regional markets. Therefore, there are no marketing routes formed for the national market. Hog market in Okinawa (regional market) is composed of three local market areas individually. They are Okinawa Island market area, Miyako Island market area, and Ishigaki Island market area. Hogs produced in one local market area are usually consumed within that area. In the case of shortage or surplus of hogs in one area, that area enters into business with other area to keep the balance of supply and demand for hogs. When the hog supply and demand in the regional market is out of balance, the regional market will be spread out into the national market for the adjustment of the unbalance of supply and demand. 4. Price Hog prices on farms in Okinawa are higher than those of national average, but the difference is not big enough to import hogs to Okinawa from other areas. 5. Adjustment policy of supply and demand Several export subsidy systems have been putting into operation to keep the balance of supply and demand for hogs in case of an oversupply of hogs in Okinawa. For example, there was "The hog price stability act" before the reversion to Japan and there are many assistant programs for hog by "Okinawa Prefecture Livestock Corporation" after the reversion to Japan.