配偶者喪失後の対処パターンと精神健康との関連 The Relationship between Coping Patterns and Mental Health after Spousal Loss
本研究の目的は, 死別後の対処パターンと精神健康との関連を明らかにし, 死別後の不適応対処について検討することである.配偶者喪失者123名を対象に, 質問紙調査を行った.その結果, これまで不適応対処とされてきた「故人からの回避」「故人との絆保持」と精神健康との相関関係は認められなかった.一方で, 3つの対処パターンが明らかにされ, 故人との絆に執着し, これからの生活や人生に取り組もうとしていない対処パターンの人は, 故人との絆を保持しつつ, あるいは故人にとらわれないようにして, これからの生活や人生の方に取り組もうとする対処パターンの人に比べ, 精神健康の状態が悪いことが示された.
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the coping pattern and mental health after bereavement and to consider maladaptive coping. 123 widow(er)s answered a questionnaire concerning coping with bereavement (Coping with Bereavement Scale) and mental health (General Health Questionnaire Japanese version, 28 items version). As a result of factor analysis with promax rotation, it was revealed that Coping with Bereavement Scale had three main factors : "Life Orientation" (e. g., I thought about my own life from now on), "Avoidance" (e. g., I tried to forget the deceased), and "Retaining Ties (e. g., I talked with the deceased in my heart)". As a result of partial correlation analysis, it was shown that "Avoidance" and "Retaining Ties" had little relationship with mental health. As a result of cluster analysis, the following three patterns of coping with bereavement were emerged : Cluster 1 (low-life-orientation and high-retaining-ties), Cluster 2 (high-life-orientation and high-retaining-times), and Cluster 3 (middle-life-orientation and high-avoidance). These coping patterns were unrelated with age, sex, family structure, and passage of time from loss. Three coping patterns were compared by using one-way analysis of the variance (ANOVA) on mental health, and further post hoc comparisons of significant results were undertaken. The scores of GHQ-28 total and four subscales of Cluster 1 were significantly higher than that both of Cluster 2 and Cluster 3. According to GHQ-28, 93.8% widow(er)s in Cluster 1 was screened as neuroticism. Thus low-life-orientation and high-retaining-ties was considered as maladaptive coping pattern after bereavement. And the implications of these findings for bereavement care were discussed.