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Distances play important roles in cosmological observations, especially in gravitational lens systems, but there is a problem in determining distances because they are defined in terms of light propagation, which is influenced gravitationally by the inhomogeneities in the universe. In this paper we first give the basic optical relations and the definitions of different distances in inhomogeneous universes. Next we show how the observational relations depend quantitatively on the distances. Finally, we give results for the frequency distribution of different distances and the shear effect on distances obtained using various methods of numerical simulation.