乳児後期の要求行動の発達 [in Japanese] THE DEVELOPMENT OF REQUEST BEHAVIOR IN INFANCY [in Japanese]
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It has been pointed out that there is a change in communicative behaviors in latter infancy (9-10 months old). This is the biginning of the intentional communication and is called the illocutionary stage by Bates et al. They also found two communicative acts in this stage-proto-declarative and proto-imperative acts. In this paper the formation of the proto-imperative actis discussed. I made a pseudo-longitudinal observation of six 7 to 13 months old infants using the interference technique, which consists of forcing the infant into frustration and consequently eliciting request behaviors. The developmental process of the request behaviors of infants is described based on this observation. Firstly, it turns out that the development of the request behaviors proceeds in the following order : (1) desire or frustration expression (crying, fussing, tensional arm movement, etc.) ; (2) demand practice (direct behaviors to the object, reaching, etc.) ; (3) instrumental demand practice (direct behaviors to the object trying to use the adult's hand as an instrument) ; (4)practical request communmication (eye contact or uttering call sounds to the adult co-occurred with direct behaviours) ; (5) conventional request communication (conventional gesture, showing, giving, pointing, etc.) ; (6) request communication by speech. The biginning of the stage (4) (-10 months old) has a special character of a steplike change. The behaviors of the stage (1) and the stage (3) has similar properties as the abnormal behaviors of autistic children. Secondly, I investigate the relation between the formation of the request communication and that of other areas of abilities. The same behavioral patterns of communicative skills (direct behaviors to the object + eye contact and giving) first appear as proto-declarative acts, then as proto-imperative acts. So the skills for the request communication are formed in the playful interaction with adults, then used for the request. The hypothesis that the stage 5 means-end relation has close connection with the intentional communication is tested. Any consistent correspondence is not observed. The six infants can be divided into two types, object-oriented type and person-oriented type, according to the order of the appearence of the stage 5 means-end performance and that of the request communication.