不確定性原理・保存法則・量子計算 [in Japanese] Uncertainty Principle, Conservation Laws, and Quantum Computing [in Japanese]
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Classical mechanics leads to the deterministic view on the world, according to which the complete knowledge on the past state derives the complete knowledge on future values of physical quantities, whereas quantum mechanics shows that it is impossible to know the past state completely since measurements disturb the state of the measured object. It has long been said that Heisenberg succeeded in expressing this as a simple quantitative relation by his uncertainty principle. However, the relation was not general enough in expressing the quantitative relation between the measurement noise and disturbance. Recently, a new relation was found to solve this problem, and it has become clear that the new relation plays a role of the first principle to derive various quantum limits, some of which are obtained individually, on quantum measurements and quantum information processing in a unified treatment. This paper surveys the above development on the new formulation of uncertainty principle and its applications to quantum computing.