憲法習律としての「憲政の常道」 Normal Constitutional Practice as Constitutional Convention
Today, Normal Constitutional Practice (Kensei no Jodo) is disregarded by almost constitutionalist in Japan. But it was built as Constitutional Convention. It triumphed several ordeals. In fact, a party government was stronger than any other organs. The privy Council, the House of Lords, the bureaucrats and the military authorities that should have veto could not overthrow of the cabinet without help by the Opposition. The strongest veto group was the House of Representatives. Its political resource was power of command by cabinet that includes the Ministry of Finance. The elder statesman Saionji protected the customs. Though it was indicated that parliamentary government was crushed by pressure, the essence is suicide of two major parties, and it disturbed constitutional government in The Empire of Japan.
憲法論叢 (11), 47-68, 2004-12-20