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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of inhaled nitric oxide(NO)on chronic pulmonary hypertension(PH). Thirty patients with valvular heart diseases(n=8, group A), chronic lung diseases(n=16, group B), primary PH or PH due to collagen disease(n=6, group C)were studied. NO was delivered for 20 min at concentration of 5, 10, and 20 ppm in spontaneous respiration. After inhalation, percentages of systolic pulmonary artery pressure(%SPAP)levels in group A were significantly decreased compared with those for preinhalation by 12%, 14%, and 14% at 5, 10, and 20 ppm, respectively(p<0.05). In group B, %SPAP also significantly decreased by 7, 10, and 14% at 5, 10, and 20 ppm, respectively(p<0.05). However, inhaled NO did not significantly affect %SPAP in group C(p=0.4). There was no significant difference in gas exchange in any of the groups. However, 4 out of 8 patients in group A and 10 out of 16 patients in group B showed decreased partial pressure of arterial oxygen in response to inhaled NO. This study demonstrated that inhaled NO is a selective pulmonary vasodilator in decreasing pulmonary artery pressure(PAP) ; however, the reaction was different in line with the background disease cause of PH. NO inhalation was most effective on patients with moderate PAP. Furthermore, higher concentrations of NO would be risky in some patients with chronic PH.