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We report a case of a 19-year-old woman with a primary pericardial synovial sarcoma that extended from the right ventricular free wall to the posterior aspect of the left anterior thoracic wall. Synovial sarcoma was diagnosed by the detection of the chimeric transcript SYT-SSX using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This transcript is generated by reciprocal translocation between chromosomes X and 18, and is specific to synovial sarcoma that usually occurs in the extremities of young adults. When pathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of synovial sarcoma is difficult, the molecular biological technique using RT-PCR becomes a powerful method of confirmation of this neoplasm.