Soldier-like Nymphs in the Pemphigid Aphid Colophina clematicola (Pemphigidae : Aphidoidea)
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Three species of the genus Colophina produce sterile soldiers in addition to normal first-instar nymphs, while C. clematicola has been reported to produce monomorphic, defensive first instars. This study revealed that in the first instars of C. clematicola there are three morphs, which consist of minor and major morphs and a soldier-like morph. Minor and major nymphs seem to develop into apterous and alate adults, respectively. Soldier-like nymphs are basically sterile and not morphologically specialized compared with soldiers of other Colophina species. It is supposed that the soldier-like nymphs have a function of low-intensity defense, such as the crushing of predator eggs.