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In order to develop new drugs from natural products, constituents of natural medicines were examined for their effectiveness in the KCN-induced anoxia model in mice. Methanol extract from a Chinese medicine, evodia (fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa BENTH. or E. officinalis DODE), had a significant effect in the KCN-induced anoxia model in mice and therefore the active constituents were further examined. The results indicated that the antianoxic action of evodia was found in the fraction containing evodiamine. Further analysis of the active constituent indicated that evodiamine and rutaecarpine, indole-alkaloids found in large amounts in the Chinese medicine evodia, were mainly responsible for the antianoxic action.