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Two new species and a new subspecies of spiders (Araneae) are described from Japan under the names, Ryuthela iheyana sp. nov. (Liphistiidae), Argyroneta aquatica japonica subsp. nov. (Argyronetidae) and Dolomedes yawatai sp. nov. (Pisauridae). Ero foliata L. Koch, 1878, described as a mimetiid is transferred from the original genus to Chrysso O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882, belonging to the family Theridiidae and regarded as same species as Argyroaster punctifera Yaginuma, 1960, syn. nov. On the basis of examination of type specimens preserved in the old European collections, synonymies of two araneid species are reported, that is, Araneus seminiger (L. Koch, 1878) [=Araneus miyashitai Tanikawa, 2001, syn. nov.] and Araneus stella (Karsch, 1879) [=Araneus tsuno Yaginuma, 1972, syn. nov.].