ミャンマー施釉陶磁 : 生産技術と編年のための史料(第1部:東南アジア産施釉陶磁器の生産技術と編年,<特集>東南アジアの土器と施釉陶磁器) Glazed Ceramics in Myanmar : Their Manufacturing Technique and Historical Documents for Dating(Part 1: Technology and Chronology of the Glazed Ceramics in Southeast Asia, Earthenware and Glazed Ceramics in Southeast Asia)
Glazed ceramics were produced in Mon, Arakan, Shan and presumably Pyu, in the area of present Myanmar. Mon glazed ceramics can be classified into celadon, black-glazed jar (Martaban jar) and opaque tin-glazed wares which have white, green or brown colour. Four of celadon kilns were excavated so far as of today: one in Lagumbee (1992, 1999), two in Twante (1999) and one in Phayagyi (2002). All of them had a common structure of brick-made cross-draught kiln on ground with roof supporting pillars. The glaze used was close to ash-glaze materially. The vessels were shaped with a turning wheel in anti-clockwise direction, except for round base jars, which were shaped from clay coils and by paddle and anvil technique similar to that employed in earthenware making. A C14 analysis of charcoal from firing-chamber in the Phayagyi kiln site showed the following datings: A.D.1525 (within 1519-1534 including error) with probability 17.1%, 1559 (1537-1595) with 65.8%, 1630 (1621-1637) with 17.1%. From the Phayagyi kiln site, three small sherds of turquoise-blue-glazed ware were unearthed. It is estimated that they were produced there for the existence of crucibles with filter holes to compound the glaze. No kiln site of Martaban jars has been found in spite of explorations in town of Martaban. At Kyaukmyaung in upper Myanmar, Mon potters are making similar jars even now. They are descendants of the potters from Pegu in the middle of the 18th century according to their legend. There we can see way of manufacturing the jars with coiling technique and big brick-made cross-draught kilns on ground. A Martaban jar was unearthed from a layer of 1580's at Oita in Japan. Some can be seen in salvaged artifacts from shipwrecks: Spanish San Diego (1600), Dutch Witte Leeuw (1613) and so on. Nor kiln site of tin-glazed wares has been found. The writer supposed that the tin-glazed white ware with green decoration was possibly influenced by Persian opaque white ware with blue decoration in the era of Abbas the 1st (1587-1629), and that Mon potters used copper-green painting as a substitute for the cobalt-blue painting, since cobalt pigment was difficult to obtain for them. Tin-glazed plates show characteristics in the form of base that left trace of straight lines with cutting cord widely in the center. A white-glazed plate was unearthed from a layer of 1580's at Sakai in Japan. Mrauk-U that was once the capital of Arakan has an unexcavated kiln site where multi-colour glazed wares can be seen. Artifacts from the Royal Palace of Mrauk-U include glazed tiles with cobalt-blue, copper-green, white glazes and with green painted decoration. Laungbwannbrauk Pagoda built in 1525 in Mrauk-U has glazed tiles on its surrounding walls, the colour of which is blue, green, white or yellow. In Shan State they made ornamental glazed potteries at least in the late of the 19^<th> century, which was reported contemporaneously by Taw (1895). Shan State museum exhibits them and other glazed wares made at Maing Kaing in the middle part of Shan. Near Kyaing Tong in the east of the state we can see small up-draught kilns under ground in operation today. They make with them black earthenware water pots at Wor Khok village, and lead-glazed small wares at Wan Yin village. Once a Chinese chronicle, Hsin Tang Shu (1060) referred to green-glazed bricks on the city wall of Pyu that remains a problematic issue, because no evidence has been found from excavated Pyu sites. Other documents on Myanmar glazed ceramics, mostly on Martaban jars, were cited here from Ibun Battuta (1356), Duarte Barbosa (1518), Linschoten (1596), records of the Dutch East India Company picked up by T. Volker (1602-1682) and Alexander Hamilton (1727).