日本の治安悪化神話はいかに作られたか : 治安悪化の実態と背景要因(モラル・パニックを超えて)(I 課題研究 日本の治安と犯罪対策-犯罪学からの提言)  [in Japanese] How 'the Myth of Collapsing Safe Society' Has Been Created in Japan : Beyond the Moral Panic and Victim Industry(Rising Fear of Crime and Re-building Safe Society in Japan: Moral Panic or Evidence-Based Crime Control)  [in Japanese]

Abstract

2003年に実施された衆議院議員選挙において,主要政党のほとんどが,犯罪・治安対策を重要な争点として取り上げるなど,日本において,現在ほど,犯罪や治安が大きな社会問題となったことはない.世論調査の結果を待つまでもなく,多くの国民が,疑問の余地のない事実として,日本の治安が大きく悪化していると考えている.本稿では,これを「治安悪化神話」と呼ぶ.本稿では,まず最初に,日本の治安悪化神話の根拠となっている犯罪統計を検証する.そして,治安悪化を示す警察統計の指標は,警察における事件処理方針の変更等による人為的なものであり,人口動態統計等を参照すると,暴力によって死亡するリスクは年々減少しつつあること,つまり,治安悪化神話は,必ずしも客観的な事実に基づいていないことを確認する.次に,治安悪化神話の生成過程について,マスコミによる凶悪犯罪の過剰報道,それによって作られたモラル・パニックを指摘しつつ,さらに,一過性であるはずの治安悪化言説が,マスコミ,犯罪被害者支援運動と支援者(advocates),行政・政治家,専門家の共同作業を通して,単なるパニックを超えて,社会の中に定着していく過程を分析する.

Japan has enjoyed the reputation for being one of the most crime-free economically advanced countries. However, since the late 1990s, with constantly increasing recorded crime rate and dropping clearance rate in police statistics, it appears that the Japanese public has lost confidence in its safety and the effectiveness of the criminal justice system. In the general election of 2003, the crime problem was a central issue. For, the first time since WWII, major political parties proposed various measures to control crime, such as installing more CCTV, putting more police officers on the streets, and longer sentences for offenders. A Cabinet Office survey of public attitudes also showed that the proportion of the public who thought crime was getting worse had increased from 18.8% in 1998 to 39.5% in 2004. This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, I examine crime and related statistics, to investigate whether public perceptions are based on sound evidence. I found that in terms of crime statistics, in the late 1990s, there was a series of police scandals in Japan that fundamentally changed the way the press reported policing issues. Such changes provoked key policy changes toward the reporting and recording of crime. This in turn resulted in a sudden increase in the number of crimes recorded, and a sudden decrease in the clear up rates. The moral panic, which I call here as 'the myth of a collapsing safe society', created by the press coverage of crime statistics. In the second part of the paper, I examine how the myth of a collapsing safe society has been created and maintained by analyzing the disparity between press coverage of murder and actual number of murder, and the role of victim support movements.

Journal

Japanese Journal of Sociological Criminology   [List of Volumes]

Japanese Journal of Sociological Criminology (29), 10-26, 2004-10-18  [Table of Contents]

Japanese Association of Sociological Criminology

Cited by:  2

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Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID) :
    110006153656
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID) :
    AN00206207
  • Text Lang :
    JPN
  • Article Type :
    Journal Article
  • ISSN :
    0386460X
  • NDL Article ID :
    7476543
  • NDL Source Classification :
    ZA31(政治・法律・行政--刑法・刑事政策)
  • NDL Call No. :
    Z2-611
  • Databases :
    CJPref  NDL  NII-ELS 

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