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Cold-treated karyotype of Chinese trilliums is reported here for the first time. The karyotype of Trillium tschonoskii var. tschonoskii (2n=4x=20, K_2K_2TT) were uniform among ten plants from the Dali population of China ; A-1・1/2 ・2 B-4・4/1・1 C-2・2/1・1 D-2・2/3・3 E-1・1/2・2. All chromosome types indicated by numerals were the same as those of plants of Kyushu, Japan. The karyotypes were also identical with those of many plants in Kyushu, but different in one of two homologous pairs of chromosome D, 1・1/3・3, from those of plants in Hokkaido and Shikoku, Japan. Thus, the progenitor diploids of Chinese T. tschonoskii must be similar to those of plants of Kyushu but different from those of Hokkaido and Shikoku.