『スッタニパータ』犀角経第11詩句をめぐって(岸英司名誉教授追悼記念号) The 11th Verse of the Khaggavisana-sutta in the Suttanipata(In Memory of the Late professor Emeritus Hideshi Kishi)
The Khaggavisana-sutta of the Theravada school consists of fourty-one verses in the Suttanipata (Sn.35-75), having a fourth quarter (pada d) refrain, eko care khaggavisanakappo (one should wander alone like the rhinoceros), except the 11^<th> verse. The 11^<th> verse (A-1) is linked to the following verse (the 12^<th> verse) (B-1). By the discovery of the Gandhari version of the Rhinoceros Sutra belonging to the Dharmaguptaka school, we came to know that the Rhinoceros Sutra had been compiled before the schism of Buddhist schools. The 11^<th> verse (A-1) and the 12^<th> verse (B-1) in pairs appear in the Dhammapada 328-9 etc. (A) (B) which seem to be original form of the verses. However a fourth quarter (pada d) of (B) verse has eko care matang'aranne va nago (one should wander alone like a elephant in the forest), instead of eko care khaggavisanakappo of the Rhinoceros Sutra. When the Rhinoceros Sutra was compiled, the preexisting (A) (B) verses were adopted in it by changing eko care matang'aranne va nago to eko care khaggavisanakappo. The verses of the Khggavisana-sutta are recited in tristubh or mixed tristubh-jagati meter. As for (A) (B) verses, all the padas of (A) verse are in tristubh. The padas a, b, c of (B) verse are in tristubh. The pada d (eko care mdtang'aranne va nago) of (B) verse constitutes twelve syllables like Jagati meter, but its meter is obscure. So, there seemed to be no objection to change eko care matang'aranne va nago into eko care khaggavisanakappo (in tristubh meter), when adopted in the Rhinoceros Sutra. Though the pada d (careyya ten'attamano satima) of (A-1) verse is different from the refrain of the Rhinoceros Sutra, there was no problem, because the 11^<th> verse (A-1) is strongly linked to the 12^<th> verse (B-1). Without the 11^<th> verse, only the 12^<th> verse cannot convey enough meaning.