公立学校における在日韓国・朝鮮人教育の位置に関する社会学的考察 : 大阪と京都における「民族学級」の事例から The Position of Korean Children's Education in Japanese Public Schools : A Case Study of "Minzoku Class"
This article aims to clarify the positon of Korean children's education in Japanese public schools. I focused on Minzoku class, a program initiated in the 1950s, where Korean children can spend some hours a month learning Korean language, history, art, cooking and so forth. In this paper, I search for answers to the following questions. First, how was Minzoku class introduced in Japanese public schools after the end of World War II? Second, what was the position given to Minzoku class in the public school system and how has it changed due to social transformations in Japan? Especially, in this paper, I compare two areas, Osaka and Kyoto, where there are more than 170 Minzoku classes in public schools and where different processes have been experienced since the 1970s. As the result of my research, I came to three conclusions. First, in fact, Minzoku class was introduced in Japanese public schools as part of the process of blocking Korean ethnic education after World War II by the Japanese Government. It was nothing but an 'alibi'. For that reason, Minzoku class was in practice positioned outside the school system during the 1950s and the 1960s. Second, the real turning point in the position of Minzoku class came in the 1970s with changes inside and outside of Japan, including the diffusion of antidiscrimination movements and the increase of foreign newcomers. After the 1970s, Minzoku class began to be positioned inside the school system. In short, school started to play a major role, going beyond the Korean lecturers of Minzoku class. Third, even now, there is a considerable gap between the realities of the Minzoku class/school and the administrative/governmental practices of Minzoku class. For example, administration does not provide enough to cover the labor costs with Korean lecturers who are teaching in Minzoku class. Above all, more reality-based administrative practices are needed and they should be based on historical perception.