モチベーション研究における動機概念に関する理論的整理 -McClellandの所説に基づいて- A Theoretical Approach to Motive Concept in Motivation Study From the Viewpoint of McClelland's Theory
The psychology of motivation is a broad and loosely defined field. Furthermore, motivation is a basic psychological process. Few would deny that it is the most important focus of the micro organizational behavior. Traditionally, psychologists have not totally agreed on how to classify the various human motives, but they acknowledge that some motives are unlearned physiologically based. For that reason, it is difficult to comprehend a framework of motive concepts which can predict human behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to review the motive concept suggested by McClelland(1987), who is most closely associated with the study of achievement motive. Specifically, first we summarized up the measurement and concepts of motive, such as "measures of human motive dispositions", "achievement motive", "power needs", "affiliative motive" and "avoidance motive". In addition, we critically reviewed and discussed them in terms of the definitions of concepts. In conclusion, although we could grasp the implications of each motive concept, there were some ambiguities regarding McClelland's motive concepts. Thus, more elaborate conceptual regulation and detailed explanation of the connections to the concepts seem necessary in order to clarify the notion of motive concepts, because there are a number of motives which lie in a gray area from the viewpoint of human motivation described by McClelland.