ランカシャー綿業の形成過程 : 大西洋貿易とアイルランド・リネン業 Lancashire Cotton Industry in the Embryonic Stage : the Atlantic Trade and the Irish Linen Industry
This paper regards the calico-substitute industry of 18th century Lancashire as an 'embryonic cotton industry' and investigates how it developed into pure-cotton industry. In past research, little attention has been given to the pre-water-frame era, and only fustian has been considered as a mediation to pure-cotton calico. I start by considering the question, "what was calico-substitute: fustian or linen?" I then closely examine the following two issues: 1.) how the export of Lancashire linens to the Atlantic world developed in competition with Indian calicoes, and 2.) how linen yarn for warp was supplied to Lancashire until the appearance of the water-frame. In 18th century Lancashire, linens filled the role of calico-substitutes. Both linen and fustian were linen-cotton fabrics (cotton weft and linen warp), but while linen was a thin, light cloth, fustian was heavy and thick. Furthermore, linen could be finished with bright colours, and was very suitable for underwear because it could be easily washed. Lancashire linen had the same character as calico, in that it could be used in every corner of the globe, whatever the climate. The Lancashire linen industry made products for universal use and sent them to many places in the Atlantic world. The process of the growth of the embryonic cotton industry depended heavily on the outside world, not only for the demand for the goods but also for the supply of raw materials: the Atlantic world as a market for linen, and Ireland as a supplier of linen yarns. This process was a preparatory stage for the coming pure-cotton industry. The Irish linen industry was incorporated as a yarn supplier into the growth process of the embryonic cotton industry of Lancashire. This viewpoint will help to cast further light on the relation between Britain and Ireland as well as the history of the Irish linen industry in the 18th century. At the same time, it could also offer a new perspective to the conventional question of how the British Industrial Revolution came about; that is, how important a role her closest and oldest colony, Ireland, played in its outbreak.
歴史と経済 45(4), 1-18, 2003