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In the 21^<st> century, as we face an unprecedented increase in the number of elderly people and a high-welfare society, care and nursing will become more important. In this article, I review the coming role of nursing specialists from the viewpoint of patient autonomy. Firstly, I propose that the trend of mutual support, while maintaining individual autonomy, will continue to spread. Thus, it is essential to respect others' lives as well as one's own for a "comfortable relationship". This is the core meaning of the concept of "Caring". "Caring", the basis of nursing, also includes interrelationship and interdependence. This should make nurses reflect on their own lives often cared for by patiants while caring for them. Secondly, while reviewing the development of nursing theory, I stress the support of patient autonomy. In clinical nursing, respect for patient autonomy in their daily lives is the most important factor in patient "comfort", although more attention is normally paid to radical problems involving life or death such as terminal care. Lastly, I mention the possibility of integrating the "ethics of justice" and the "ethics of care". When nurses deal with "patient autonomy" as professionals, the problem of "bad paternalism" (or intrusive nursing) can arise. In considering how clinical nursing ought to be, the "ethics of care" and the "ethics of justice" must be integrated. This idea may be more suitable for the age of care. "Practical knowledge" in nursing may contribute to the theoretical integration of the "ethics of justice" and the "ethics of care".